During the year 1619 AC, Sangili II killed the king Rasasingan through intrigue. While the battle was raging the Ethirmannasinga Pararajasekaran’s elder daughter Suntharavalli's spouse and brother-in-law of the deceased Rasasingan took the sceptre and crown and left the palace. The Nallur court and the families of royal lineage by assent crowned Kulasekaran as the king of Nallur Kingdom in the year 1619 AC. The relative thought marriage tie Senarathan the king of Kandy to Ethirmannasinga Pararasasekara Chakravarti and his sons Kumarasingan and Wijeyapalan were present as relatives at the crowning ceremony of Kulasekaran. Kulasekaran ruled from (Chulipuram) Singa Nagar with contingents of troops, flag, chariot and royal accomplishments. King Senarathan attended the crowning ceremony registering his support for him. These happenings have been misconstrued by writers who have stated that the Kandyan rule stretched into Nallur.
They have also added that for the reason of not having troop-strength the Portuguese did not battle. Therefore they didn’t claim the rulership from the descendant king at Nallur. Vannirasa help was requested and King Kulasekaran battled at Thondamanaru and Thenmaratchi against the Portuguese but without success. It is a fact that Sangili II governed in a capacity of Portuguese dominance and that Nallur Kingdom did not lose its sovereignty and the rule continued from Singanagar under Kulasekaran. Although Nallur came under the Portuguese, King Kulasekaram ruled the Singai Kingdom with the support of Kandian King and Vanni Cheftains who were under him. That the descendent titular head should rule Singai nadu was desired because if Singai fell then it would be followed by the fall of Vanni and Kandy into alien hands. The Kandyan ruler Rasasingan married Singairuler Kulasegaran’s daughter Thamilmathevi in the year 1635 AC. Rasasingans son, Ethirmannasuriyan has stated that his mother’s country is Jaffna and that this region did not come under the rulership of the Portuguese or Dutch (year 1690AC) .
The subjects were largely loyal to King Kulasekaran and he followed the Singai traditions in ruling from Singai (Chulipuram ) in competition to the aliens at Nallur. In the year 1655 AC war flared up at Chulipuram against the Portuguese. The battle was a difficult one and in desperation the ruler at Chulipuram gave worship to Lord Vinayagar and batches of crows flew down and pecked at the eyes of the Portuguese and caused injury. Kulasekaran could have killed Portuguese but because he did not inflict death on them. They requested the ruler to join them, that they would help him to rule and for him not to claim rulership and to give this assurance in writing. The King Kulasekaran refused this request of the Portuguese. ‘He who gives up his independence merely for the sake of the safety of the present then he does not deserve freedom’ thus Benjamin Franklin, the great American Stated. For the sake of ones own security to give up the land’s sovereignty is not admissible and Kulasekaran continued to battle. At this time Vanni was being ruled by Kulasekaram and Kailaivanniyan who were of the royal descent of Singainagar. As they were relatives to these Singai rulers. They paid tribute and gave aid to Kulasekaran to stabilise his rule at Pallavam. The vanni rulers were always ready to stand by him.
KING KULASEKARAN 1619 - 1665
The royal families never gave into the Portuguese to them it was an act of treachery. Those of the royal lineage never served as underlings to the aliens. The madappalli servers never acted in mannar of opposing or letting them down in a treacherous manner the royalty or their heirs. It was Paranirubasingan as chief mudali and Pararasasingan as Village chieftain appointed by the Portuguese, and in their time that the Nallur Kandasamy Temple was brought down to ground level through heavy blows with iron implements in a crude manner. In place of the demolished temple of Lord Muruga (Kandasamy) a Catholic Church erected. The lands wealth, treasures and savings were all plundered.
Saiva temples were demolished and the patriotic persons of the land killed. In the years 1518 AC, 1543 AC, 1561 AC, 1570 AC and 1592 AC the Portuguese forces made overwhelming attacks but failed to succeed. But the inward down reaching antagonisms in the Tamils opened the doors to alien conquest. Paying of tributes, trade dominance, religious conversion assumed the nature of problems of an unsolvable nature is stated by E.M.V. Nagunathan (11.03.2002 – Virakesari). In 1620 AC, Sangili ruling at Nallur was arrested and the man who led the Portuguese and helped to identify him was ‘Kakkai’ is known from notes made by the Portuguese ‘Kakkai’ and his relatives converted to Christianity and worked with the Portuguese governance and held the positions of Nithippandaram (Treasury chief) , store-house manager, mathakkan, mudaliyar, maniyagar, udaiyar (positions of control) given by the conquerors. Those who held these positions had wealth, influence, name and power of office, accumulation of property and power flowing from appointments to posts of significance. ‘Kakkai’ was supposed to be the palace-cook. Kakkai (Thambi) is referred to as Kakkai Vanniyan by Pulavar was it with the intention of concealing the truth? Or to hide the cruelties and harassments of the Dutch? That they governed well says Pulavar, why?
Pararasasekara Chakravarti during the year 1478 AC and the outcome of the relationship (outside royalty) between Valliammai the ruler, Paranirubasinga Mudali was born in the year 1470. This Paranirubasingan committed treachery to the ruler Sangili in 1620 AC; he converted to Christianity. In the year 1620 AC his son Pararasasingan of the madappalli grouping was the son of Parunirubasinga Mudali, is a conflict in the dates that discounts credibility being distanced from truth owing to baseless tradition. Because in the year 1543 AC was put to death by Sangili according to father Gnapragasar. Because for 160 years that in up to 1621 he held high office under Portuguese rulership and his son Pararasasingan was made mudaliyar, an official position. These facts are not only at variance with truth but concocted. Paranirubasingan died and after quite a long period of time Pararasasingam was born. Therefore the said Pararasasingan is not the son of Paranirubasinga Mudalis son. Pulavar has hidden facts, that is not mentioning the Tamil kings who ruled after 1560 AC. Prince Kathirkamasekeran is not let out and contrary to royal tradition that the son born to Valliammai, Paranirubasinga Mudali is said to be of royal lineage.
The madappalli people are according to one work a caste that came from India. Also Yalpana Malaiyar has state that the ruler Sangili gifted 500 villages to Paranirubasingan and earned from him the title madappalli. But the details of the gifted 500 villages are unmentioned. Sangili has appointed them madappalli. But the details of the 500 villages are unknown. During the rule of Sangili there were only 158 villages under him as such he cannot have gifted 500 villages. There is no truth in such statements. The word madappam and madappalli give different meanings. The pulavar (an academic) did not know the difference? Further there are in his work many concocted tales about madappalli.
The unconvential relationship between king Pararasasekara and woman working in the food preparing section of the palace resulted in the birth of Paraniruba Singan and thereby a distnct caste evolved called madappalli. These madappalliyar are a feature of Jaffna society. The people who did madappalli work (preparation of food) were called by the Vellalas as madappalliyas is stated by Simon Casie chetty and he contradicts that they came from India. There is nothing about a relationship without marriage. He further goes on to say is his memoirs that during reign of the Dutch Governor Vanree, the these people worked in the kitchen section of the Brahmins (Madappalli). K. Muttukumaraswamippillai of Chunnakam is definite that madappaliyar did not came from India. They were the workers of Kitchen section of the Jaffna Palace. Relying upon the traditions followed by Pallavanad, what Muthukumaraswamiappapillai has stated is the truth. Confirming with the Tamil tradition followed there were 18 types of subject groups under the royalty and of these madappalli is one. Those who committed treachery to the king by identifying themselves with the Portuguese faced the disdain of the loyal, subjects of refined qualities who spoke of this group of people as being unworthy. The Portuguese titled these unworthy people as ‘Mudali’ and gave them responsibilities of office a cold war started between the Vellalar and Madappalliyar. This cold war between the two sections of society created problems for the Portuguese.
Muthukumaraswamipillai elaborating on the topic of frictional conditions says that the Portuguese created further tensions between the Vellalas and Madappalliyar by giving them the office of Kiramathikaram (Village administrator) and conferring the title of mudali which should naturally go to the Vellalas, aggravating social disharmony and the Vellalas ; here it must be understood that there are gentleman farmers and tilling farmers nevertheless tensions between these two groups. Using their influence through the ‘mudali’ title, the madappalliyar in order to serve them got down prison slaves. In 1834 AC a court case was filed that insult was cavred by addressing them scornfully madappalyar, judgement was not in favour of the madappaliyar grouping, Muthukumara Swamipillai has made it clear that madappaliyar are pure Tamils further there are distinctions of Rasamadappalliyar and Kamaramadappalliyar. Paranirnbasingan and Pararasasingan are relatives by deed. Sangili was treacherously let down by Paranirbasingan and Pararaasingan belonged to the madappalli clan as such treachery which turned over Sangili in 1543 AC and the Paranirubasinga Mudali who died in the year 1630 have no connection. Both are different persons belonging to different times.
Those who gave support to the aliens rule and who registered themselves newly as ‘mudalis’, and those who were treacherous to the ruler and country and earned their titles, and those who were newly brought down by the Portuguese from India and settled in the land giving them the title ‘mudali’ ever despised by the people loyal to the Singai rule. Those who came newly from India, supporters of the aliens and thereby influential brought down slaves who were sold at a price and treated them as underlings equated the Vellalars of the land at the level of bought slaves causing outrage to the latter. The vellalas displayed their opposition to the new comers. Those who worked for the Portuguese and who were holding powerful office under the Portuguese tried their best to undermine to patriotic and the loyal and bring them into a very lowered position under the aliens.
The lands beneficial orderly arrangements that prevailed as traditional out flow from one phase to another were disturbed and conflict situation arose as a result resulting in confrontations. The Tamil culture which lived in harmony, those in one realm of work not quarrelling with those in other realms of work was on the upsurge. The introduction of slave-workers disturbed the harmonious work-pattern, a condition of inferiority and superiority plagued the Tamil society which here to lived and worked together moving society as a whole in a manner of oneness got upset by the changes resorted by the camp-followers of the invaders. Differences became sharp and untouchability poisoned society. The coming of the Indian slave-workers brought the dis-harmonious patterns in Indian society. The Singai civilisation which evolved a fluency in society was disturbed and the resulting inter caste work tensions upset the equilibrium of an evolved social culture.
Kakkai the traitor interacted well with the Portuguese commander. There was a close relation with them as that which occurs between invader and traitor. Madappalli Kakkai got himself registered as a ‘mudali’ of heritage. Because the registration carried no heritage line his name was without any previous name. If not he would have registered him self earlier. Likewise is Paranirubasingam, higher in status than a ‘mudali’ by lineage? Whether the two paranirubasingans are one and the same or two. Research is needed to sift the truth from the confusion. The Portuguese obtaining money registered the different castes such as kallar, maravar, ahambadiyar, madappalliyar one and all as mudalis. Madapali Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan registered themselves as mudalis. The loyal subjects of the Singainadu refuse to co-operate with them. Some were bought from India and registered as Vadasiraikoviyar and sold to the newly appointed ‘mudalis’. More slaves were brought form India to establish the madapalliyars and the newly-registered mudalis giving them a status in society. The alien Portuguese who brought the practice of purchasing, slaves, there by into the land came the practice of slavery ‘Chirai’ came into Tamil Society. The ‘Chirais’ were slaves purchased at a prices.
The Singai civilisation lost its stature owing to the negative social practices introduced by the aliens. Because of the fact that the Portuguese allies of the land brought negative aspects into society, the natural citizens of the society referred to the Indians who came in as ‘chirais’ derogatorily ‘vadakkar’. Although the natural inhabitants who were Tamils gave support to the aliens they suffered scorn. It is the ‘Vellalas’ who from time immemorial referred to as ‘mudalis’ not others. It was during Portuguese times that Kakkai Madappalli manage to be registered as Mudali after intense manoeuvring considering that he had earned social elevation. This title wrongly conferred to the ‘madappallis’ made them feel important in society. Further they registered their descendant line as mudalis. Muthali, udaiyar, nainar, nadchiyar tagged after one’s name cannot give the social standing concomitants with these elevating classifications.
Those with genuine social status did not have the custom of tagging their name with mudali or nainar. Those who were ignorant of royal traditions of the people of the land created tremendous social confusion with the entry and entrenchings of the alien Portuguese. The traditions and customs and their qualitative aspects gave away the confusing endeavours. Those writing about the customs and practices of a land and people need to be familiar with them the lack of familiarity is disheartening when writing about a land ignores the essential features of a viable society. Also these who acquired titles could be identified, the people of the land could distinguish the acquired distinction from the real. Mudali title had a tradition behind it. A golden encasing or a ministerial post only gives under the alien an inferior status and enslavement. The Tamil can only live in self-respect in the context of self rule. Self respect is more exalted than ones own life. Those who serve in an alien context cannot have self respect. There were certain people and segments of society turned traitors to the royalty to their land linking themselves with the Portuguese and gained wealthy title and position. Those poets disregarding self-respect sand in praise of such new-categories of persons.
Pararasasingan introduced him self with pride as from the madappalli grouping. Rasamadappaliar and Kumara madappalliar were confirmed as relatives of Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan. Also it was made out as they were the descendants of Paranirubasinga mudali through concocted stories such elevating has been made. Concealing the royal lineage and through distortions of real facts the royalty blemished. Those who fought valiantly to save the country were defiled and the treacherous who aided the aliens were exalted by some writers and poets. This can only be regretted. Paranirubasinga mudali meant of the vellalar and a royal line cannot issue from it.
For Kopay Velan it was customary to enter the Portuguese fort to cut and trim the commanders hair. As there were indications on an oncoming battle velan escaped to Vanni through fear. There he was captured by the Dutch troops. The Dutch engaged Velan to purchase cattle for their food. At night time, he accompanied the Dutch troops and pointed out the rear entrance of the Portuguese fort. The Dutch forces entered the fort and captured it totally. In the year 1658, the Dutch was able to capture the Portuguese fort while those who were within were asleep without a battle. Valan was made the ‘chief mudali’ for the service he rendered in capturing the fort also the Dutch tried to remove the chief mudali (of elevated lineage) in charge of finance. This individual saved his position by giving in marriage (his sister or sisters daughter) to Velan state Sivanandayogi (Yalpanak kudiyettram – colonising of Jaffna). The Dutch conferred the title of Ulagakavala mudaliar Velan for saving them from the Portuguese. Thus contradicting tradition that velan (Ulagakavala mudali) was raised in status is a fact. Also distorting the nature of the mudali people the Dutch recorded that ulagakavalamudali saved them. Here it must be noted that by marriage ties Kakkai thamby and Velan became relatives.
During the Dutch period too using their wealth, title and influence the Rasamadappalliyas made efforts to raise their social status above the Vellalas through creating needless tremble. In order to placate the two grouping, the Dutch governors appointed the two to the same position, one position to Vellala and one to the madappalli was given according Governor Vanree recorded in his letter as follows:
“In Jaffna town arose an irreconcilable fracas between the Vellalas and madappalliyars the Vellalas urged that by lineage they were of elevated status and that important state positions should be given to them and not to the madappalliyar and this was countered by the madappaliar that they should be appointed as state official; they considered themselves of being higher in social defining by this post. This unfortunate situation always continued. This contradicting situation caused a chaotic situation in the society. The people responsible for feeding a society were praised by the people as a whole and the scholarly. The disturbed condition arose because of contradicting the tradions of a society.
Poothathamby mudaliyar demolished the walls of the seven staged temple streets of Ponnalai Permal Temple and used the building – stones to erect in Kayts (Hamenhill) the Poothathamby Fort and a Dutch church in Singainagar. The result of committing sacrilege by demolishing the temple, Poothaththamby suffered the treachery of Andrasi and was killed. During this happening when efforts were made to behead Poothathamby did not meet with success. Then Andrasi who had posed of as a friend to Poothathamby said that within Poothathamby’s head of hair was ‘Vettara mooli’ (a herb that was called uncuttable herb) was hidden in hair and to remove it and behead him. The herb was removed and Poothathamby underwent beheading. Andrasi died in an unfortunate manner because of the curse of Alagavalli. It is said that ‘although lean and soft karma would creep in softly and devour one’ This is in reality an inalienable truth.
Rasasekaram son of King Kulasegaram crowned as King of Singainadu in 1665 AC to safeguard their sovereignity by ruling of the Singainadu. Dutch rulers made efforts to prevent the King from levying tax from his citizens ended in failure. Dutch rulers tried to get tax from the King was ended without success. Vanni chieftains who were under the Singai Kindom paid tribute to the King and supported him. Dutch rulers tried many times to get the support of the King but not success. Dutch rulers demolished the temples, Keerimalai Sivan Temple, Maviddapuram Murugan Temple and Ponnalai Manivannan Temple .King was unable to prevent these destruction due to weak force and traitors who joined Dutch and Christians had supported the destructions.
Robert Knox said in his book that when he spoke to the people of Anourpuri in 1679 AC there was no one to understand sinhala, they were different from sinhalese and their language was tamil.Adrion Heyland ( Dutch) who visited Ceylon in the 17th century said that major part of Ceylon is tamils dwelling area, it was not come under the sinhala rule or dutch rule and it was called Kailaivanniyan ruling country.Coastal areas belong this ruler , majority of the people of coastal areas speaks tamil and from Negombo to Dondra people speaks sinhala he further said. Actually he stated the vanni areas of the Singai kingdom which were under the rule of King Rajasekaram and Kailaivanniyan was a ruler of Kailaivanniyan territory (Anuorpuri).
King Kulasekaram of the Singainagar royal lineage ascended the throne and was crowned. During the time of his rule he possessed strength as that of the Dutch power. Another Kulasekaran who was an uncle to him ruled Vanni. During this time, the two blood relatives at Iyakkachi were selling cut down tree trunks, the Dutch troops claimed them as belonging to the Dutch regime and endeavoured to take the cut down logs. Kulasekaran drove them away and urged that he had the right to sell them and proceeded with their sale. The Hollanders who felt that they were losing support in the land, bought down fifteen persons from India and had them registered at the Kachcheri as farming – vellalas with the title mudalis. The Tamil subject did not acknowledge the mudalis. The Dutch brought slaves from India and kept in company street and brought Jaffna to serve them by selling them. Still by their group-name tags they were identified. If the name ended in rayar they belonged to the Kallar group and thevar meant maravar group.
To gladden the Dutch governer, Mailvagana Pulavar composed and sang the ‘Yalpana Vaibava Malai’. They were the segments of the people who aided the Dutch in stabilising their rule. During Kulasekaram’s reign, when the Dutch title conferred mudliyars tried to raise them by travelling in the open Palanguin (thandikai) .Kulasekeram stopped them from proceeding in Palanguin made them exit and destroyed the Palanguin. Also he punished them. For this royal act he was launched as ‘thandikai – foe Kulasekeran’. The Palanguin was never used after that. This Kulasekaran is the ruler who took up the task of getting made the artistic engraved divine-chariot for the Paralai Vinayagar Temple (Chulipuram).
In their 1770 AC, King Subramanium firmed the sovereignty of Singai Kingdom by donning the crown. He was an expert in the sixty-four Tamil arts. The Hollanders were not cruel as the Portuguese. Today’s Nallur Kandasamy Kovil which earlier had suffered damage was re-erected by Don Joan Mappana Mudaliyar, his service under the Dutch rulers, despite being in service with the Dutch the mappanar families were loyal to the royalty. During this period the Nallur kingdom lands were came under him and the produce of the lands went to him. At the same period of time Vairamuttu chieftain of the Singai Kulasekara royal family ruled Vanni and paid tribute to King Subramaniam. Owing to the fact that King Subramanian and Chieftain Kulasekeram belonged to the same royal family and close relatives and friend to each other acted together to recapture the lost parts of the Singai Kingdom. Neither the Portuguese nor the Hollanders were able to bring under their control the whole of Singai rulership. From the regions they captured, they exercised their power.
Although they tried to capture the Singai rulers, they failed. The Britishers took over the regions under Dutch control. The Singai rulers kept changing their rulership centers over the large region to protect their sovereiguity and rule from the invaders. Also while continuing their rule they battled the alien whites. The Vanniyar’s could not battle further than their boundaries. On the commanding of the Singai Kings, they crossed their boundaries joined the Singai forces and battled on the Vanni expanse, The Singai Kingdom extended from Singainagar to Matale at the centre and to Tricomalee, Kottaiyapuram and Panahai to the east and to the west up to Puttalam, Negambo and Wattale. Income was obtained by the King Subramaniam from the taxes made on the people, jurisdiction was exercised by him by sentencing the guilty, thus rulership powers was with him. During this period Kulasekaram Vairamuttu known as Pandara ( chief ) Vanniyan engaged in war displaying valour. With his death was a step-back to the war reclaiming the land from alien yoke!
Vairamuthu son of King Subraminiam crowned in 1823 AC in Singa Nagar. He continued the royal practices after his father. He levied taxes from his people and exercised jurisdiction by sentencing the guilty thus rulership powers was with him. In the new year ceremonies he presented gold coins to Tamil artists. He inaugurates the food production by ploughing the paddy field. He ruled the Singai Kingdom with four types of soldiers. He took keen mterest in maintaining the Royal Heritage of Singai Nadu. From the year 1505 AC, the Portuguese, the Dutch and then the British troops battled up to 1832 AC with the Singai Tamil rulers, big battles were fought. These wars claimed many Tamil lives, the Kandyan Tamil rulers too fought extending up to 300 years and Kandyan Tamil troops were killed. This caused a big decline in the Tamil population, still the Tamils continued to be in majority.
The political changes made in the year 1833 AC created a negative impact on the Tamils. The capital of lanka was changed from Singainagar to Colombo. The Kandyan Kingdom was destroyed. The boundaries of the three rulerships were obliterated and the British turned all three regions in to one administrative unit, this resulted in the rising influence of the Sinhalese in the Colombo ruling centre. Owing to the fact that the Sinhalese did not engage in battle and got mixed with the aliens, their number rose to be large from being smaller. During this period American Missionaries were attacked and chased out and their offices were set on fire by Sinhala Buddhists in South Ceylon which was under British Rule. American Missionaries took shelter (to secure their lives) in Singainadu under his rule in 1816.
From the year 1789 AC and thereafter the rulership of Singai rulers continued in the regions under their control, although certain segments were lost, their sovereignty continued and endeavors were continually made to recover the territories by engaging in battles.
In the year 1822 AC, Arumugam was born to King Vairamuttu. In the year 1854 AC, he was crowned and ruled the Singai Kingdom, with sovereignty intact and with royal splendour of nandikkodi (bull-flag), troops, chariot and sceptre. He was learned in the sixty-four refining arts. King Kulasegaram strived valliantly to recover the land from alien rule. Arumugam was known as Kulasekaran. He acted in opposition to the spreading of Christianity by the missionaries. He was able to re-convert the earlier Christians. He made the American Missionary doctors retreat and exhibited his talent by curing sicknesses they were unable to cure in 1872. Dr. Green praised Kulasegaram’s success and said you are the “Great Physician of Ceylon”. An American Dr. Green in order to learn the curative methods visited Kulasegeran for one year. In 1873 Doctor Green returned to his home country. Holding with royal tradition and practice, long-standing at the daun of New year (Tamil), he presented as of royal-way, the musicians, dancers and the naglinga long-trumpeteers gold coins in starting off their service to society. If Tamil rule is to strengthen Tamil nationalism ought to be preserved. Through the Sixty-four fine-arts Tamil nationalism was nurtured by King Kulasegarum. The Tamil artists received his favour. Elephant – mounting, horse – mounting, sword-practice and battle- methods, and chariot driving were his talents. The people loved him, they endowed him with their respect and recognised his royal privilege. He exercised powers of taxing, judicial and meting out punishments, those duties of a ruler. The British officials endeavoured several times but failed. He refused to submit to alien rule and although no vanni rulers he fought valiantly to preserve the rulership of Singai Kingdom.
KING KULASEKARAN 1854 – 1910
DR. S. GREEN
As the Tamil new year begins, the practice of rulers went to drive the plough at the auspicious time. During his time with the white administrators support of the udaiyar (Division alttead) tried to drive the first – plough. On hearing this Arumugam set off with his warriors, tied the udaiyar and his brother-in-law to the plough and commenced the new-year plough-ceremony. The white administrators were unable to exercised their authority against him.
King Kulasekaram brought under cultivation the lands at Mathagal belonging to the Singai rulership. The district revenue officer with the help of the white grandmas tried hard to capture these lands of the Singai Kingdom. Arumugam with his sixty swordsmen defeated the D.R.O. and established his right of rule. In order to celebrate the victory, he donated to his warriors a land-area (naming sixty-dagger-men Pallavalavu) as a royal gift. He demolished the Paralai Esura Vinayagar kovil (Temple) built by Emperor Ethirmanna Pararasasekaran and re-erected it newly. On reaching his ninetieth year he crowned his grand-son subramanium. He passed into the invisible realm in his ninety fifth year.
In the year 1911 AC was born King Arumugam’s son Duke Thambipillai’s son Subramaniam. He displayed valour, courage and bravery and was crowned by King Arumugam in the year 1911 AC, he fought with courage and with to recover the entire Tamil Kingdom. To the white British Colonial lords he was a nightmare. In the January of 1910 AC, an occurrence demonstrated to the British rule his powers of rulership and courage. Subramaniam on his rounds to surveille his paddy – fields rode in a Villu-Bullock cart and was returning home. The British Government Agent Price's horse coach was seen travelling before his bullock cart. Subramaniam was angered and over took the coach.
KING RASASIMMAN 1911 - 1920
SRI M N CHINNAPPAH SIR HENRY MAC CALLUM SIR P RAMANATHAN
1907 – 1913
GOVERNOR OF CEYLON
The enraged government Agent Price wanted to cunningly take over the bullock cart that over took his coach. He arrange for a bullock cart race to take place at the Jaffna esplanade. This news spread across the land and the question arose whether the bullock would defeat the horse. The esplanade became filled with a large crowd of people to view the event. From Moolai, the royal riders travelled in many horse drawn carriages.
Subramaniam’s warriors with their weapons travelled in twenty bullock carts to provide guard to his bullock cart. The competition race took place and the bullock cart defeated the horse carriage by over taking it. Government agent Price overdue his guards men to take over the bullock cart as being a possession of the British rulership. Prince Rasasimman challenged the right. The government agent, the bullock cart belongs to the Singai royal family and cannot be taken over. As his warriors shot into the over-head air, King Rasasimman rode home reaching Vaddukoddai. The British soldiers were unable to near the bullock – cart. All the way crowds of people lined the streets and gave a runing welcome. At from Vaddukkoddai festive drums were beaten rhythmically, flag royal umbrella and standard bearers with alavattam taking up the lead; royal carriages with their occupants riding in them the procession went on its way. Banana trees, areca nut – palms and leaves of the mango decorating the streets the regions atmosphere got thrilled by the festive view and mood of the people. The auspicious brass – kumba vessel topped by coconut and decorative mango leaves welcomed the procession. The winning bullock – cart and the winner was profusely garlanded and guisely women and gaily coloured garments bestowed with arathi flame rising brass lamps.
The British government agents power appeared diminished. Up to date every Hindu New Year the colourful bullock – race is commemorated in memory of the victory. The eventful bullock – cart victory occasioned the crowning of King Rasasimman. Troops, standard bearers horse and chariot and garland and associated auspicious ceremonies the crowning took place in the year 1911 AC. From the year 1619 AC the royal families battled to recover the rulership in it entirety. The sovereignty of the Singai Kingdom was continuously with the monarch of the Emperor Pararasasekaran lineage they wore the crown and ruled with the sceptre. He was born on 23.04.1888 in Moolai.
The bullock – cart victory and the auspicious ceremonies and the festive mood of the region told the tale that the Singai Kingdom has not lost its sovereignty. The man of Moolai, Sree M. N. Chinnappah arranged a grand welcome for Governor McCallum to honour his relative with silken turban. To welcome the alien governor from Colombo in Singai Tamil land, to give him precedence, King Subramaniam refused such honouring. The welcome planned was brought to an end with these words and ordered King Subramanium.
King Subramanium told his relative who planned to welcome, ‘you must not lend help to the alien governor. I am endeavouring to reclaim Tamil rule. Take the governor to your home and send him back, no festivities, thus he ordered. King Subramanium took the turban to be placed on the head of the victor and placed it on the nagalingam. The British Pennant was lowered from the platform. The ‘Nanthi’ (bull) flag was raised. The governor returned to Colombo without any harm. Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan appeared in the case that followed with great patriotism.
Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan put forward the case, Although the British Governor came with few guardsmen, hundreds of Tamil warriors were present the governor was unharmed; not murdered, not injured, King Subramanium did not interfere with his return to Colombo. The governor ought not be given a welcome on Tamil land; he has no rulership on the Singai Tamil Nadu and as such stopped the celebrations planned. The flag bearing the nanthi symbol should be hoister on Singai Tamil land and he raised it. The foreign governor McCallum on although his foe, he did not suffer any harm. It was possible From 1619 AC, the Singai royalty have ruled on Singai Tamil land without losing their sovereignty King Subramanium belongs to that proud royal lineage.
Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan thus established that the Singai Tamil royalty with its long lineage and King Subramanium belonging to that Royal line meant no harm. Also it was explained that strong exploding crackers were available no harm occurred. If a nation of people start pondering that momentum issuing from them cannot be stilled. The struggles that they have undertaken unbrokenly awakened the people to their rights to their land. The celebrating of the victory over the horse wants telling to his grandsire Arumugam King Subramanium drove around in his chariot drawn by four horses. The people welcomed him with auspicious decorations of mango leaves and young coconut leaves, brass vessels of water topped with shorn coconut and mango-leaves and painted with colour of Kunkum and yellow. Sounds of praise; the beat of victory drums, sweet music and song and blessings showered on him by the females with arati lamp lit flame who placed on his forehead the red-dots marking his triumph. To the guardsmen who were in attendance, gold coins gifted. The crowds that gathered to celebrate the victory in glee and the poets gave him the title Rasasimman (Lion King) their praise was an outflow. The governor ordered the arrest of Subramaniam. The forces of Britain could not the people’s flow of loyalty to the royalty preserved him from treachery. There were not witnesses, chinnappah who planned the welcome earlier declined to be witness.
Subramaniam followed the royal lineage of Singai Kingdom as Rasasimman. He exercised his royal right and sovereignty to exercise power of adjudicating and delivering judgement. He was a representation of the royal line of Singai Emperors, driving the first plough on Tamil new year day (when the sun moves in to the first house of the zodiac arise); those who perform service, the artistes receive gold coins. He distinguished himself in the knowledge of the sixty four Tamil Arts, also known as an adept at surgical cure performed on the soldiers. Where the western medical men failed to cure Veluppillai (timber stores,Jaffna), performed surgical cure and saved his life.
Rasasinman’s royal duty of encouraging the fine arts was notable. Artist Arumugam’s son, Valangaiman Shanmugasundaram (India) who was an artist of fame on the thavildrum, his grand father Ponnalai ( Jaffna )Subramanium was honoured for his talent by gifting by King Rasasimman him the golden trumpet ( nagasinnam ) and awarding him the title Kalaimamani (artist of immeasurable greatness). Also he was made a royal artiste in the year 1918. To the great dancer Kanniha, gold and land were gifted and appointed to the palace as royal danseuse. During the year 1920 AC, the death of Rasasimman occurred suddenly. The King of Singai appointed his son Kulasegaram (Kandasamy) as his heir before his death. The lion of Singai Kingdom ceased to roar. After him Prince Kandasamy, who the heir to throne, protected the crown and sceptre of Singai Kingdom.
Beginning year 1920, Prince Kandasamy the six year old son became the heir to the throne. As he was too young he was unable to lead the forces and protect the Singai rulership. In the year 1930, the Donoughmore commission arrived in Sri Lanka. He put forward his opinion that the Tamil Kingdom ought to have its distinct sovereignty to rule, and that the Singai rulership’s right to rule should be recognised owing to the political leadership of the Tamils was at variance, this opinion could not be upheld.
In the year 1936, King Kulasekaram declared him self the Singai King. This indicated that the Singai royalty did not abandon its sovereignty. The ruler exerted him self to make whole the rulership over the Singai ( Jaffna )Kingdom. Although his endeavours were not of strength mainly because few political leadership was at variance due to their splintered opinion. G.G.Ponnambalam accepted the policy of King Kulasekaram and supported him. Unfortunately his party members (Rasakulam) and Prof.Suntharalingam acted against G.G.P made his policy changed. Up to date the Tamil problem has continued without solution. The failure of the Tamil leadership to envisage what would happen as phase after phase evolved and time made its impact on wared political thinking that could not but influence their land. If they had held to the sovereignty that had not been lost by the Kingdom upheld by its rulers, who never lost their sovereignty to the Europeans.
KING KULASEKARAM 1920 - 1973
The right to sovereignty not possessed by Britain was wrongfully exerted. The error was mainly the fault of the Tamil leaders. The royalty of Singai, did not lose it to the Portuguese, this was clearly stated by M. Thiruchelvam, but it was not taken note of Britain cannot hand over the administration to anyone else, which sovereignty it never had. Britain ought to have handed it power over to Kulasekaram the ruler of Singai. Handing it over elsewhere was wrongful.
During the Dutch period yala, puttalam, mahavanni, trincomalee, kottiyarupuram, batticaloa, paname including 29 other Tamil vanni ruled regions were under their Tamil rulership. This is recorded in the work relating to Eelam History. The above-mentioned regions were part of Singai-ruled land. During British rule too up to the year 1832 the lands captured by the Dutch from the Singai rulership were under the Jaffna commodore; and the administration of justice, and finance functioned with the necessary establishments related to these functions.
In 1831 Gallbrooke commission with their recommendations warned as follows it must be unlamented without affecting the individuality of the different communities follows different languages, different religions and cultures. There are vast differences between the Sinhalese and Tamils ,cultures belongs to these two groups are different. It is not a good conduct that reforming customs and habits followed for a very long period by new rules and regulations. He said strongly that the outcome of this would be worst.
In addition a commission was appointed in 1832 J.F.Dixon a member of it submitted his suggestions to the Governor Sir James R .Longdon as a special memorandum in 6.9.1833. Because the commission neglected these facts and not interested in considering the differences or in protecting the individualities of the people.
“Individuality of the people belongs to three Kingdoms should be protected. Separate committees for every region for ruling as above should be formed. Committees for ruling can appoint three separate commissioners to rule” said Dixon.
“Establishing a unitary state by changing the present constitutions is not suitable for the present and the future too.” Added further.
“If a unitary state established without considering these differences, it is where the people will loose confidence in the characters of English rulers” clearly he pointed out.
The British established their capital at Kotte, and resultant to this was the decline of the influence of the Tamils with the British and battles necessarily may have caused the shifting from Singainagar, the capital to Colombo. Owing to the removal of boundaries of three kingdoms, passed way to the Sinhalese who lived in Kotte were able to leave Kotte and dwell and work in Singai Kingdom .Professor S.K.Sittambalam stated that when the British gave independence Eelam’s rule ought to have returned to the people of the North. But it went to the Sinhalese people and that has caused several deep problems. The Sri Lankan Tamil Kingdom did not lose its sovereignty to the British. Although weakened the Singai rulers merely lost a part of the region under their rulership but the rule was with the Singai crown, they did not lose their sovereignty.
In 1948, the British crown gave up its colonial rule, lawfully the rulership of the Northeast ought to have returned to the Tamils. The Tamil leaders of then did not function with genuine interest” this was stated by Dr. E.M.V.Neganathan, M.P. (Tamil Daily newspaper Virakesari 11.03.2003)
“The royalty of Nallur was not extinct from the year 1620 AC. The royalty having the crown and sceptre along with the royal nanthi (bull) emblem on the flag were ruling to gain their rulership over whatever regions they had lost. In the Twentieth century King Subramanium pressings the symbols of royalty (crown, sceptre and flag) exerted his rulership and endeavoured to regain the whole of Singai rulership. The grandson of that ruler Rajasekaram belonged to the Royal lineage of Emperor Parasasekaram of Singainadu. This Royal lineage is still endeavouring to regain their rightful heritage. Their appearance and endevour illustrates the fact that the Royal lineage of Nallur’s descendants are still upholding the values and traditions of the Royal line’ (Honourable M. K. Eelavanthan M.P.Speaking at Colombo Thamil Sangam (22.06.2004)
Honourable G. G. Ponambalam speaking in the 1939 has said that the Tamils are the earliest inhabitants of the land of Sri Lanka. A branch of our inhabitants have lived in Sri Lanka before the Sinhala era. Self rule is distinct from rule of a grouping, and they are making all the efforts to capture the rule for themselves, referring to the Sinhala only cabinet and condemning it. To the British governor recommendations have been made secretly and confining all powers to the majority Sinhala ethnicity, has been the greatest treachery committed to the Tamil ethnic minority. In accordance with the constitution, what the cabinet decides to recommend ought to be debated and find a final (conclusion) approval of House of Representatives in this respect the recommendation made to the British Governer without debate and sent to the British Colonial Secretary is an intolerable action (07/12/2006 Thinakkural).
The history of the Tamils in Sri Lanka was deliberately changed and concocted in Sinhala writings. The Tamil rulers were deliberately described as Sinhala rulers and they were accepted by the descendents of the 700 slave who were expelled from India for their criminal activities the real Sinhalese. Furthermore it was made out that only the Sinhalese rulers ruled Ceylon, and they succeeded in this outright falsification of history by convincing the many British administrators. It was blatantly announced that Ceylon belonged to the Sinhalese and there by the rulership and power to rule was taken over by the Sinhalese through a contortion of true historical facts.
Neither the Tamil leaders nor Tamil historians brought to the notice of the British administrators that at the said period – Kandy and Kotte rulers were Tamils and that the official language was Tamil. Thus, by not refuting the wholesale outrage to historical facts great mistake had been committed by the educated Tamils.
Historically, the right to land and right to vote for a representative was only with the Tamil under Singai rulership continously from a period before 1000BC. The Tamils resisted the granting to voting rights to the aliens, but the Donoughmore commission recommendations paved way for the Sinhalese to rule all the Tamils. Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan strongly objected to the recommendations of Donoughmore by stating that Donoughmore means Tamils no more which view he held into the time of his death.
In South Sri Lanka pan Sinhala Nationalism was deliberately planned, mooted and made to flourish; at the same time Tamil nationalism and enthusiasm for it was cruelly crushed. The Tamils of Kandy, who did not trust the Sinhalese from before the arrival of the alien whites; requested the tri-fold rulership that was earlier (1505) in existence still the Tamil leadership failed to assert that the Singai Kingdom was what they wanted.
After the year 1934 AC, when the first general elections were held, the Jaffna leftist urged the people to boycott the elections thus the elections did not take place in the Jaffna peninsula. In the hill country, the hill country tamil leftist won the elections. The general elections was won by the Sinhala leadership who appointed a pan-sinhala cabinet and appropriated the entire power of administrating the country. Also this power clique engaged fully in conspiring to keep the Tamils out of the administering any powers of rulership throng out the succeeding years. This power cliques made wicked plans to eliminate power-sharing with the Tamils, amongst these plans were to colonize the regions of Singainagar rule with the Sinhalese and extended the Kotte ruler boundaries and there by expand the area for the Sinhalese to settle down there. Outside of these conspiracies the appropriation of Tamil land resources was undertaken, thereby shrinking the economic advantages of the Tamils. All endeavored were made by the conspirators to reduce the stature of the Tamils to a minority people among the long-time inhabitants of South Sri Lanka, efforts were made to make them Sinhalese; their entire efforts centered around to enhance the Sinhalese and the Sinhala language and at the same time to enfeeble the Tamils and affect the Tamil language. Among these evil plans were the complete or near-compile monopolizing of employment in the government sector.
Among the conspiring political techniques relentlessly followed by the Sinhala power-monitering ruling sector were as follows:-
- Disenfranchisement of the Hill country estate workers totaling around 1 ½ lacks.
- In addition to this there was the devil of voting rights to 8 ½ lacks Hill country Tamils. There was another opinion that 15 lacks of Hill country Tamils underwent disenfranchising (Pavai Santhiran Thinakkural – 09-08-2009). The Hill Century Tamils entered parliament through leftist parties, as such the British government ignored the fact that disenfranchisement of the Hill country Tamils was on a big scale.
- Kotte Sinhala Government not possesses the sovereignty since 1948.They made an attempt in 1971 to taken over sovereignty from the British Crown through violation or revolution is legally null and void .
- There is no provision to draft a new constitution and provisions only to make amendments.Leftists who were against the crown and democracy prepared a new constitution out of the way.If these two constitutions of 1972 &1978 do not have legal values the governments which established from these constitutions also legally not valid which was the cause for disaster of tamils.
- Sinhala Government of Kotte does not have authority or jurisdiction over the Singai nadu.Enforcing war and destruction over the Singai Kingdom continuously for sixty years and massacre of six lakhs and sixteen thousand of tamils and its troops forcibly occupying Singai nadu is unlawful,unjustice and breech of international laws and conventions.
Sir Ponnambalam Ramanathan was a statesman of eminence, Philosopher, a legal luminary, and greatly devoted to Saiva Hindu Philosophies a Tamil Scholar. He was devoted to the Singainagar rulership and possessed the political genius to look into the future. His defense of Singai King in the year 1912 AC and appearing on his behalf and was able to overcome the then British governor and protecting the Singai King Rajasimman. He was able to establish the fact of Singainagar heritage of continued rulership. In contrast to this, the Tamil leadership coming after him failed to strengthen the fact of Tamil King of Singainagar.
The Donoughmore and Soulbury commissions sent by the British Colonial rulers were not properly acquainted with the facts of history and continual Tamil rulership lineage by the Tamil leadership. The right claims of the Tamils were neglected by these leaders, they possessed no comprehension of future developments in the country’s future, also the leftist learning’s of certain Tamil leaders also added to the problems. Which led to a political decline in influence of the Tamil population of Sri Lanka. The neglect of placing historical facts relating to continual rulership of the Tamils was an enormous error.
Lord Soulbury said in his forward of a book 'Ceylon is a Divided country' written by B.H.Farmer in 1962 said that He accepted and worried the mistake made by him failed to consider the statements made by the Tamil leaders of Ceylon which was the cause for existing pain and destruction of Ceylon Tamils. A period of 15 years was taken to Lord Soulbury to realise his mistake. But no action have been taken by British Authorities yet to rectify the mistakes made by the commissions in 1831, 1930 and 1945 .Therefore consider to recognise the unlost sovereignty of Singai Kings and lawful independance of Singai kingdom is the only choice for the British Authorities and international countries to stop the war against tamils, massacre of tamils and bring peace in Srilanka and other countries. To be down-trodden and enslaved is not a disgrace but to be entitled to rights and submit to be enslaved is a great disgrace said Mahatma Gandhi in the year 1929 to the American black population.''Without providing the rights of the people you can't bring calm and peace'' said by Abraham Lincoln ex- President of America.
The failure to place before the public and the world the historical truths relating to the Tamils led to their being referred to as (Kallathonis -illegal immigrants), the enslaved; as those who came from the mainland of India after the 12th Century AC that created a mimic picture of historical distortion leading to the Tamils being targeted for revile. As a result of this neglect of historical facts the people outside Sri Lanka are presented a distorted picture of the Tamil problem – What is the Sri Lankan problem? What is the cause of the problem? Not knowing the true facts of war between two nations ,massacre, their attention is focused fully on the impacts of the genocide and trying to solve them. The Singainagar ruler, Kulasegeram kept the nanthi-flag (emblem of the bull) flying in 04-02-1948 in all regions under the Singainagar rulership and that this rulership never came under the Colombo rule. Tamil leadership refrained from attending the Kotte Parliament and stood with the Singainagar ruler Kulasegaram, Jaffna would have had its own parliament with the King.
Tamil leaders opposed the Lion flag in Parliament in 1948, Honourable Prime Minister D.S. Senanayakke replied that according to history the lion flag is the flag of Dravidians (Flag of Tamil Kings). As it was accepted by the majority of the House as National Flag of Ceylon we have to accept it. I can’t change it. (This is the sorry plight of Tamil Leaders). After 1948 the action taken by the illegal Sinhala government of Kotte in Singai nadu is null and void and punishable offence under the international laws.
Instead of preserving their entitlement, there had been a foliate endeavor for what they had no practical use. The ruler Kulasegaran appointed his eldest son Rajasegaram in the year 1972 as his heir and crown prince. In the year 1973 ruler Kulasegaram died after being ill. Through discussions and negotiations with the tamil leaders and others Prince Rajasekaram took several steps to implement the rights of Tamils in Srilanka and also to bring justice to the affected Tamils.Since 1972 he has been taking actions to protect the lives ,rights and belongings of his people Singainadu amicably and lawful ways.Citizens of Singainadu always loyal to Singai royalty and paying high respect to his royal highness with confidence and much expectations.In 1977 whole citizens of Singainadu cofirmed their support for Singai kingdom and to restore its rule within its boundary.
As aresult of genocide of tamils in 1983 ,India entered into an agreement with Srilanka in 1987 to safeguard the tamils because of the action taken by the vetran tamil leader A.Amirthalingam. This agreement was approved by the parliaments of India and Srilanka. Rajiv Gandhi ex-Prime Minister of India produced the agreement in the U.N.O.session as he realised it is a matter regarding two nations. America welcomed the agreement. As aresult the state was recognised and a state assembly was established in 1989. Once again the sovereignty of Singai kingdom and it of Indias independance approved by India and Kotte sinhala government. Very soon Sinhala Govt. of Kotte suppressed the State Assembly of Singainadu against the peace accord. Chief minister Varatharajaperumal and his Government declared the independance of Singainadu by passing a resolution in the state assembly with the support of India and its troops stayed in Srilanka in 1990. Due to the anti India activities of few tamil groups of ceylon India had withdrawn its support of Ceylon tamils and failed to take action to implement the agreement in his part and safeguard tamils.
In 2002 when Norway came as facitator and peace talks started ,tamils had their own kingdom , boundaries and a seperate rule .Norway had done its best to bring peace .Unfortunately Sinhala Govt. cheated the Norway by neglected the Memorandam of Understanding and invade into Singainadu by massacre of one lakh and ninety three thousand tamils through thousands of air raids over civilions and multi barrel shelling from land and sea since 2006. When Norway left the country tamils lost their land and its rule is the impact of the M.O.U. Anil Agathley retired Colonel of India said in his article (published in Thinakural 07.06.2009 ) that the entire northern region of Srilanka was changed into camp (after the end of L.T.T.E war ). Srilankan diplomacy is well organised with experts and it acts successfully in hiding its own extreme approach over he added further.Vanny people says that there were no land mines in their dwelling areas when they left in May 2009.
Twenty thousand tamil youths who were under imprisonment in the barbed wire fenced army security camps ( Vavuniya ) missing in four months is a joke of the authorities who are held responsible, said irresponsibly. Humanetarian activities of the sinhala government from 2007 to 2009 resulted in the massacre of two lakhs of tamils (approximately) is a punishable offence. Conceal the truth ,preventing the witness ( including journalists ), removing the evidences and refusal of the above alligations can't deny the fact of massacre and cannot help them who were responsible to escape from the punishment under international court of law.
All those Tamils who were forced to leave the land, who suffered dislocation and internal displacement due to war, who are virtual prisoners in refugee camps, still love in the hope of a new dawn brightening their lives. Let the higher power God Siva bestow on them the highest welfare. From the very ancient period up to now Singai Kingdom maintained its rule and boundaries as a separate with its soveregnty is the real fact. Since 1948 Tamils have been fighting against sinhala buddhist terrorism to safeguard the independance of Singai Kingdom and to protect its boundaries from encroachment.