Humankind occurred at Adam’s Peak, and as human habitations enlarged moved on to Trincomalee and occupied the banks of the Mahaweli River that flowed into the sea there. Those who inhabited the bank of the River Mahawali and increased in population and moved westwards were called Nagars. Those who inhabited the Eastern Bank and increased moved eastwards and called Iyakkar. On Eelam’s westwards called Palavi’ Mandalam Nagas established the Kingdom of the Nagas. With this establishing of the Naga Kingdom, Mathottam, Lankapuri, Manimalai, Nagadivu were Naga Kingdoms. Where the Nagas lived was called Nagadivu. During the Kredayuga Nagadivu was called Punnyapuram. Punneyeswaram a Sivan Temple for worship with all facilities for temple serving families like drummers, priest and architectural specialist lived and it is not the temple but a Temple complex (Sivathalam). The king Punnyarasan ruled at this time and there fore called Punnyapuram. During the Kretayuga Civilisation (49900 BC to 33100 BC) was at peak point. During this yuga, in Nagadivu there existed a big kingdom; and this kingdom was thrice larger than Jaffna Peninsula and the islands around it.
The Ramayana epic writings have mentioned that during Krethayuga there existed a large kingdom at Nagadivu and that to locate the whereabouts of sita this large kingdom needs to be explored, Rama had said to Hanuman. The people who dwelt at Nagadivu were of an emancipated civilization Nagadivu had defense fortresses and the King’s ruling complex was within a well protected fort. Ravana made a flight towards the Naga fortress defeated the king and made his relative the new sovereign and rebuilt the Punneyapuram Siva Temple complex.
At the end of the Tretha (33100 BC to 17500 BC) yugam (epoch), somewhere about 18000 BC years after Ravana’s death his blood relative Chitrangathan brought Ravana’s veena (yarl) and played the instrument and worshipped at Punyapuram lord Siva. The land after this was called Veenaganapuram meaning mellifluent site of the veena’s musical sweetness.
|INDRAN RAVANESWARAN<|| |
RAMA CONDUCTS CORONATION
After the death of Mareesan, Chitrangathan became the ruler of Veenaganapuram. The Nagas worshipped siva as their traditional divinity and as such Punyapuram came to be called Nagakulaecharam and in time came to be called Naguleswaram. The Nagakula Ambal (Siva Sakti) came to be called Nagulambikai. We can therefore see that Nagulam (echaram) as it was called in the deep past became ‘Nagulam’ and later in Tamil called ‘Keerimalai’. When the name was ‘Nagulam’ the story of Nagulamuni a mendicant is said to be true. S. Rajanayagam has remakes that the story of the princess Maruthapuraveegavalli with the horse face was in doubt.
Dwaparayugam (17500 BC – 3100 BC) Tarakan, the younger son of Kasipa Munivar captured Nagadivu built a strong fortress and ruled from there. Tarakan was elephant like and he was called ‘Tharakan’ where Tarakan erected his fortress was therefore called Anaikottai. Tarakan was the third born son of Kasipa Munivar and Mayadevi. Darakan devotedly worshipped god Siva in deep meditation. As a result he ruled from Anaikottai, it is said for many thousand years from Anaikottai as stated in the Puranam. In the deeper time of the past men lived long. Tarakan married Chowri and she was his queen. Their offspring was a son named Asurendran.
The Devas could not defeat the asuras. The devas made their way to Mahakailasam and worshipped God Siva with melting hearts. From Siva’s central eye six sparks streaked out. Gods Siva commanded Agni (fire) and Vayu (Wind) carried the six sparks and placed them in the river. The river swirled and carried the sparks to saravana lake (Lotus Lake) when the six sparks reached the lake dried up, the lake which thus dried up is called Valukkai Aru, the meaning of Valukkai in Tamil means bereft, the lake has no water. The six-sparks (Murugan) was cherished and nursed by Karthigai maids by feeding him with milk. They were Muruga’s foster mothers. Where the Saravanai lake was the place was called Saravanai between lake saravanai and River Valukkai the sea splashes.
The young Murugan grew up and mother Parvathi gave the pointed spear (vel), that place is called Velanai. ‘Velanai’ in time in the patois of the people living there. Murugan was growing up and with his mother Parvati went to Mahakailasam and paid his loving respect to his father Sivan. In response to Siva’s command Muruga organized himself into warrior stance and warred with Tarakan. Tarakan entered Mount Kraunja and concealed himself. The opening in Mount Kraunja was merged in darkness and was called Alvai. From this gaping entrance Alvai Mount Kraunja was to the north east Mount Kraunja was a massive magic cave. When Lord Muruga came down from Mount Kailas with his massive assisting warriors, the contingent camped at Senthitsannathi, which was later known as Sellachannithi. It was from here that Muruga destroyed Mount Kraunja. On the destructor of ‘Mount Kraunja’ Tarakan came out. At the nearby Mayapuri (open space) the two battled fiercely. Muruga attacked Taraka’s neck with his vel (spear), the chain as which was around Taraka’s neck broke up and the pendant which was Vishnu’s chakkrayutham fell to the ground. At last King Tarakan of great strength moved into the heaven for his Valour. Where the battle was fought was at Mayakkai, Vadmaradchi. Where his Vishnu’s weapon chakrayutham broke up and fell was the village of Valli nachchi. Very much later Vallinachiyar found this shattered weapon (Chakrayathan) was ceremoniously placed at a temple and worshipped and this place of worship of chakrayutham was called Vallipuram. This place of worship Vallipuram was called Vallipuraalvar Kovil.
In tellectual opinion like those of Pandithamani Kanapathipillai referred to Jaffna’s culture as Kandapurana Culture, is suggestive of this consecration of the above his body. The pointed spear (vel) with which Muruga battled Taraka from his battling centre is Sellachchanithi. Also where Vallinachchi consecrated the chakrayutham for worship is Vallipuram Temple. This form of worship with the symbols of the divine is Traditional Tamil Worship. These places of worship, although not erected in accordance with northern Sanskrit scriptural mode, worshippers receive and experience divine grace and have attained fame as a result of the blessings poured onto the worshippers.
The Devas had been defeated by Tarakan and imprisoned by him and treated as slaves. Devas worshipped Vishnu (Thirumal) for these defeated Deva and Vishnu warred with Tarakan who defeated him and wrested the ‘Chakrayutham’ from him. With a 1000 flowers Thirumal (Vishnu) worshipped Siva for the returning to him of the weapon chakrayutham. Thirumal who conducted the worship with a 1000 Lotus flowers at last found that one flower was short to conduct the poojah (worship). At once he plucked his eye and completed the worship. Siva understanding this granted him the chakrayutham.
Thuvaparaugam – Thiru Nadu – Map 2
- Tarahan’s Rule
- Aruvi Aru
- Kingdom of Singakiri
- Thirukarasai Managar
- Singakiri Kotte
- Mayavan Aru
- Mavali Aru
- Suurapathman Rule
- Kalani Aru
- Kathirgama Aru
- Suran Kotte
- Mylravanan Kotte
- Theivam Hurai
- Galle Hurai
The killing of Tarakan when it became known to his son Asurendran he made his way to the Singhagiri Fort (Sigiriya) and gave this woeful message to his father’s elder brother Singan rajah he wept and cried uttering incomprehensible words, filled with sorrow. After regaining himself he installed Asurendran BC 15000 as the sovereign of Anaikkottai the center of Kingship. For about just more than a 100 years Asurendran reigned rendering service to Saivaism and Tamil. He had 3 sons. Asurendran attained the feet of Siva. Asurendrans three sons performed tapas their attention on Siva. Gladdened by their tapas granted them the gift of making request from him. Following the death of Soorapathman, his brother Anaikannan was crowned king and ruled Veeramahendrapuram. Mathottam (Mannar) was ruled by Kamalakannan.
Vithiyunmali ascended the throne of Anaikottai. His reign is placed somewhere about 14000 BC, it is said in certain works, also that he ruled for quite a length of time with authoritative strength.
Sage Jamathagni suffered from a devastating disease (Gastric ulcer). This disease made his face terribly ugly. Samathu means great strength, agni means hunger (sadaragni) monstrous hunger, owing to unappeased hunger, burning stomach and stomach sores he was called Jamathagni His face become gaunt and lean and perhaps looked like a mongoose, owing to the grace of god he reached Punnyechcharam and commenced living in a mountain cave; daily he bathed in the holy waters at Kandagi, followed by worshipping Nagakulesuvarar and Nagula Ambiga; at Punniyaeiharam. It is said that owing to the divine grace of Punniyaeswarar his disease was cured. The work Thedchanakailasa manniyam carried this account. It is understood that the mount in which he lived is called ‘Keerimalai’. South of Keerimalai’s find ‘theertham’ (holy lake) and south of Keerimalai – Maviddapuram street is Punniyeswarar Temple. Although through the passage of time the spot has become a mound of sand, the villagers refer to the spot as ‘Kovitkadavai’ meaning where the temple stood more than 50 years ago when the stony area was dug Pnniyeshvaram Lingaperuman (image) appeared. Now it is seen installed at the Keerimalai Sivan temple. Had archaeologists under taken proper research greater historical truths would have been revealed what is now seen at Keerimalai, the water-spring lake is not Kandaki holy lake, also the sivan temple nearby had been built by the people just more than 100 years ago. About 10000 BC from Eelam (Lanka) Agastyar once again went to Bharath (India). Agastyar was accompanied at his request by Thiranathumagni son of Jamathagni Munivar. Thiranathumagni was Agastya Munis first student of language literature who composed the famous Tholkappiyam. Thirunathumagni (Tholkapiyar) was from Jaffna (Yalpanam) says Thenpuloliyur Kanapathipillai. Many research scholars associated with Tamil works express this view owing to the manner of language use and words which almost confirms that Tholkappiyar hailed from Pallavam. The use of the words mJ> mjh;> tpaok;> fpahok; gdhl;L> gd;dhil make room for this view
Around 10000 BC Jaffna (Yalpanam) was known as Nagadivu, Naganagar and Manipuram. At some time those sovereigns who were descendents of Mayon numbering 18, 18 Verls and 18 divisions of citizens went over India to enhance the land and elevate it in stature. Agantya Muni went with these categories of people. During Threthayugam before the rulership of Maliyavan, Sakkaran (Mayon) ruled from Manimalai at Mullaitivu. Mullailand belongs to Mayon. Mayon ruled there and headed the second Tamil assemblage (jkpo; Nguit) and encouraged the development of Tamil. At Manipuram such developing of Tamil was undertaken Verl, Verlalar headed smaller regions. They were sublangdoms being sub-rulers known as verl and verlalar and also referred to as ‘muthali’.
Tamil and Tamil civilization and Tamil lineage patterns and ways spread to Bharat by Tamils of Eelam. Siddhas of Eelam such as Agaetnyar and Pulathyar the descendant of fore region Mayon, eighteen Verlir and the inhabitants of Manipuram, commonalty of peoples contributed immensely Tamil civilization to peniusular India. The first Tamil Academy (Thamil Sangam) was inaugurated by Agatyar, Pulthiyar and Tholkapiyar along with others in about 9999 BC at Koodal Nagar, this appears in Swami Vipulanandas research work. His research was done in accordance with Tamil research discipline.
From the beginning of Twabara Yugam at Nagadivu reign by Kings has been without break according to historic evidence. About the period 6000 BC Indran who suffered a curse was born in a fisher family at Manipuram. He plied his vocation in the sea of Manipuram; the time for redemption from the curse was nearing. Manivannan appeared as a giant shark and posed a threat to the fisherman Indran. Finally all the fishermen who were fishing combined and dragged the giant shark to shore. To their amazement the shark vanished. Manivannan the shark fisherman stood with conch and chakra (circular weapon). The fisherman took the appearance of Indran. Indran overjoyed paid obeisance and cried ‘Thirmal my peramal yon appeared and gave me redemption from the curse; henceforth all who suffer from curse shall find redemption here; where you stood sanctified your foot prints the place and shall always be there. You played in our ocean swimming and those who bathe in these holy waters will find relief from their sins caused by their short comings and on earth enjoy prosperity and there after attain your lotus feet; thus the overjoyed Indran fisherman made request to Manivannan. Manivannan responded favourably and his foot prints were embedded in the sands. From then on the spot made holy by Thirumal (Manivannan), was known as Thirvadnilai and Mani pallavam. For a space of time Indran reigned from Manipuram, Manipallavam. From then on the ‘Festival of Indra’ (Indravizha) became yearly a festive occasion.
Where Indran ruled and where the ‘Festival of Indra’ became an annual occasion of Fertility was called Indranagar (Chulipuram). Elders say that in time Indranagar through lingual changing effects in pronunciation was called Indranai. Also Singainagar in time came to be known as Changanai. The literary work called ‘Manimekalai’ clearly reveals, that Nagadivu was pallavam. Vallipura Alvar’s work Vallaithirupathikam calls pallavam as pallavam. Selvachchannithi Kanthan Thirupuranam identifies Manipuram as Manikkarai and that is said to be the Jaffna inland regions; it is also stated that manipuram at one time meant the whole of Jaffna Peninsula.
The ‘thandai’ (male anklet worn on one foot) adorned Thirumal’s gentle feet caressed the sands; the place is called Thiruvadi nilaithurai. It was also known as Pallavathurai. The stone carving of Thirukovil of 1225 after Christ of January 20th beam the inscription that Emperor Visayalingam was the King of Pallavam; also Emperor of Eelam made up of Iyakka, Naga and Rajarata regimes Thiri buvana Emperor. Kings who hailed from Pallava Royal family were known as Pallavar. The composition called segarajasegaram (work) carries the description that Singainadu and Singainagar was also known as Kandy. In Singanagar Kandy (Lake) had been crafted Pallavam was called Kandynadu stated in a book Tamil Navalar Saritham. From Manipuram (Chulipuram) along singaingar (Changanai) upto Nallur, the roadway is called Peruntheru (large roadway). The rulers of Singai’s Chariot travelled along this roadway. Later from the time of the rulership of Subramaniam, the roadway from Moolai (%sha;) up to Nallur was called Peruntheru (large roadway). The roadways used by the chariot to of rulers were called ‘peruntheru’ in the mannar of convention Chinese pilgrims who visited ‘Thiruvadi nilai’ (the place of holy feet) have stated that the impressions of the feet were indeed seen. Until 16th century these feet impressions were visible, as time passed, the sea moved and has covered these impressions. Manivannan (Thirumal) had a holy bath at this spot, Ponnamaiyur Manivannan up to date take a holy bath at this place.
The gentile feet of Manivannan caressed and made impression Nagadivu was called Manipallavam. As time passed Manipallavam came to be known as Pallavam. Around 5000 BC a miracle of Thirumal occurred at Manipallavam. At the pallavam sanctified waters fishermen fished; a golden tortoise appeared and the fisher men tried to capture it in their net. The golden tortoise evaded capture and for quite a length of time made fool of the fisherman. The unrelenting fishermen put their effort together and captured this golden tortoise and brought it ashore. The tortoise managed to escape and moved speedily westwards. The fishermen chased after it and the tortoise ceased to move. As soon as it stopped moving the golden tortoise turned into stone. The voice of Manivannan (Thirumal) was heard from the skyway above saying that a temple be raised there for him. The ruler of Manipuram built a temple for Manivannan. Because a golden tortoise was captured Manipuram came to be called ‘Ponnamaiyur’ (Thevillage of golden tortoise) and also ‘Amaiyur’ (Tortoise village). At present the place where the golden tortoise turned into stone from ‘Ponnamiyur’ came by change of uses later Ponnalaiyur. The ruler at that time built on that hallowed spot of the stone tortoise Thirumal’s image and raised a temple with seven – tiered streets of worship.
At the seventh street tier entrance a pond was built and entrance Lord Ganesha statue was erected. Because the miracle and the structure were made at Ponnalai, the temple was called ‘Ponnalayam’. The land where this Temple stood was called the Sathuranga Manatidal. Twice a year ‘Mayavanar’ (Thirumal) is take for holy dip at Pallava holy waters (Thirvadinilai). This is followed annually.
During Dwaparayugam (4500 BC)
The ruler of Cholanad Musukunthan battled Lord Indran according to historical evidence. Because of a curse or disease the ruler’s handsome countenance turned monkey-like. As such the name Musukunthan of the ruler is not his own name but because of the reason of monkey-like face. In India this monkey-face could not be cured; there fore the ruler made a pilgrimage to Manipallavam and reached Thirvadinilai. Here he bathed in the holy waters and worshipped continually at the Siva Temple at Chulipuram and it is stated that the monkey-like countenance changed. This particular temple is now covered with earth. This temple is situated at a point between. Veemarasan Kollai (king palace) and Sambukovalaturai and is at ‘Paralaiveli’. As the Chola ruler worshiped here and was cure of his monkey-face, this sivan temple is called Sambesuvaram. The port where the Chola King arrived and stepped down to proceed for worship to the nearby temple is called Puliyanturai. The regrettable fact is the excavation has not been carried out to reveal the temple of Sambesvaram. Yogi Karthigesu in the 20th century erected a Sivan Temple to signify Sambeswaran Temple. This is the Sivan Temple now seen at Chalipuram. Sambukovalam is the major port to North India is of course with reference to Pallavam there had been frequent travel of vessels between these places. In 3rd century B.C pearls from Eelam reached Magada Kingdom in referred to in 3rd century BC in Arthashastra.
Sometime around 3100BC the Panch Pandavas rule prevailed in India. Owing to unfrozen circumstances in order to meet urgently Dharma, the elder brother; Arjuna walked into Draupatha’s queens quarters as this was a breach of royal practice Vijayan to absolve himself of this infringement of practice was under advisory direct on to make pilgrimage southwards for one year to places. Sanctify per and bathe in the holy waters, and undertake worship. Indran’s son Arjuna, travelled to Thiruvadinilai where Indran rid himself of the curse on him and purify himself by bathing in the holy waters.
Arjuna on coming to Pallavam, bathed at the Pallava (Thiruvadinilai) Theertham (Pallavam) at the boundary of Manipuram. As it was practice for Chitrangathai to bathe at Manipuram (Chulipuram) Arjuna on seeing her fell in love with her. Chithrangathan the ruler of Manipuram arrested Arjuna and jailed him. On learning that Arjuna is one of the Panjapandavas married Chithrangathai to Arjuna. Arjuna lived here for a time and returned homewards, Mahabaratha epic tells that the flag of Manipuram bore the figures of a lion and the Palmyrah.
Dharma performed Rasasuyayagam and the yaga horse came to Manipuram, chithrangathai’s son Chitravahanan caught the horse and tied it up. Arjuna who came in search of the horse was defeated by Chitravahanan. Chitrangathai rescued Arjunan. Arjunan saved his life because it came to be known that Chitrangathi was Arjuna’s spouse. Around 3019 BC he ruled the country.
Following Chitrangathans reign his son Chitravahanan ruled. Chitrasenan reigned after Chitravahanan 2941BC.
Vairavahanan ruled from somewhere about Kaliyuga year 2860BC. He was the son of Chitrasenan. The flag of Manipuram carried the emblem of the Palmyrah and Lion the name Panainadu was perhaps in use because of these. Arjuna returned to Pallavanadu to purchase coral beads. As a result engaging himself in picking up corals without the authority by the Eelam sovereign he was apprehended on the order of the king and kept in prison. There he met the princess Pavalakodi and fell in love and married her and lived here for sometime. Here Sambukovalatarai was famous for the nine kinds of precious beads (Navamanis). Merchant and rulers came here and purchased these priceless beads.
* owing to the damage of the ola scripts due to white ants the continuity lacked
About the year of 2500 BC Manipallavam was ruled by the king Maninahan. Owing to the precious nine type of beads found in Nagativu the place was called Manipuram. Maninahans rule was full of Valour and the place gained fame. His name he gave to the kingdom he ruled – it was called Maninagapuram Naganagar. Owing to the fact that the record carrying at leaved manuscripts were damaged or eaten by white ant the continuity of research of the period lacked order.
This king round about 2000 BC was a Pallava ruler. During his reign merchants engaged in trade by carrying coral and pearl to India and other countries trade during Elelan’s reign achieved prominence. There was a naval force to protect the trade and traders. On the seven seas the vessels of Pallavam carrying flag the pennant of nandhi travelled. As they sailed they sang aloud elelo! elelo! Foreign vessels tarried at Kovalam as it was an important international trade port. Where elelo sound was raised sea pirates no alien vessels never attempted to attack and plunder the cargo. The reason for this is the valourous naval Force. Elelan vessels traversed the seven seas back and forth is told by seaman. The Pallava kings strengthened their naval forces in order to overcome the trade competing Chera, Chola and Pandiya vessels. The tri-united Chera, Chola and Pandiya efforts to attack with the pallava trade vessels was the reason for the Pallava kings to destroy the united effort at sea itself.
Nedunthivu, Urathurai, Karaidivu, Pallavaturai (Thiruvadinilaiturai) Kovalam (Sambuthurai), Parutiturai, and Nagarkoil are seven places where naval bases of strength existed. The navy, naval vessels and naval security bases of excellence existed during Elelan’s period of rulership. Traditional weapons such as spear, arrow and sword were in common use by the fighting force. Catamaran, ura, boat, vallam (a type of sea vessel), nava, thimil, vattai, padahu, machchuvai, ship, vangam and odam were the various types of sea vessels used in accordance with the area and need. In building ships Valvettiturai was foremost as a seaport. Although the seven seen were traversed, Elelan’s vessels would return to port was the belief of the people of the land.
The Pallava Sailors who steered the vessels were experts. In the same manner vessels sailing the deep seas had captains (Meehaman, kPfhkd;) of excellence to bring their ship ashore. Those who steered the ships were known as ‘Guhan’ and ‘Malumi’ (Sailor).
The emblem of Pallavam was ‘nandhi’ and the flag was called ‘nandhikodi’, as such the pallava king was known also as Nandhirajah. About the year 1900, Nandhirajah ruled Pallavam.
About the year 1800 BC Manikkanahan ruled Pallava country Manikkarasa or Manirasa as he was called ruled Tirikonamalai (Trincomalee) and built the Konamamalai temple, it is said. In Manigramam (muneria) he encouraged the production of ‘Mannikkakal’ – precious stone.