Singai Emperor Rasasingan
Singai mannan Rasasinghan ruled Pallavam between the year 572 AC up to 610 AC. He shifted the ruling centre from Manipuram capital to Singainagar named after him. (nagar means city or town). The coins of his era are of a unique nature, they were square in shape, the twin-fish figure embossed on them (Pandinad emblem is twin fish) in addition to Nanthi. Also there were coins bearing 3-fish figuring’s. These coins were issued to commemorate his victory over the ancient Palavi Kingdom (Palavi is Puttalam District) and Pandy Kingdom. Due to these victories of other kingdoms all kings of Singai Nagar called Singai Aryachakarawathi (Emperor)
Emperor Sree Nahan
His rule fallowed his father Rasasingan’s rule. He ruled from 611AC to 630AC. He functioned closely with the Pallava rulers in India which is borne out in the copper foil found in Karaikkudi. From the commencing of Thandai Chakravarti rule on the mainland of India, the Pallava rulers and Thandainad rulers belonging to the same Royal family co-operated and gave support and strength in one another. Sree Nahan ruled having Kathirkamam as his boundary (South Sri Lanka). When the south Sri Lankan ruler fought Sree Nahan the Singai ruler , Simma Vishnu of strength (India )overcame the South Sri Lankan rulership. This is in the Karaikkudi copper plate. The South Sri Lankan prince sought refuge at Nagadivu and went to India, as such Nagadivu had a really stronger and well defended Kingdom.
Manavarman ruled Pallavam from 630 – 668AC, after his father Sree Nahan. The twin fish emblem embossed on the coins beginning 7th Century AC, indicated that the Singai King after over coming Pandyanad to commemorate their victory issued coins bearing nandi and twin-fish emblem of Pandinad. This tradition followed Pallava victories. Thandai Mandalam ruled on the main land of India the Pallavas by Pandynadu belonging to the Pallava Emperor and Singai ruler also issued nandi coins bearing the emblem embossed of the regions conquered by them.
Between 669 AC and 707 AC Nandivarman son of Manavarman ruled over Singai Nadu.
Kazhatsingan son of Nanthivarman ruled between the year 108 AC and 748 AC.
From 749 AC up to 785 AC Mallan ruled Singai Empire. At Veemarasan Kollai in Chulipuram (In Jaffna) his palace and palace-garden was situated. Mallan’s name was Veemarasa. The Pallavas were famed for their mat-por which resembled wrestling. This self-same Pallava King was also called Amur Mallan and ThisaiMallan. Amur was (Amaiyur -Tortoise land) and Chulipuram. Thisai Mallai is a mini square of Chulipuram. The ruler who ruled from Thisaimallai was called Thisai Mallan. Today it has in time changed to Thisamaluvai.
Ugrasingan son of Veemarasan (Pallava Mallan) Singai Nadu ruled from 785 AC. Ruling from Singainagar married Maruthappuraveehavalli Cholanad princes at Keerimalai. Valli is the name of the princes, her full name was Maruthappuraveehavalli
Marutham – Wind
Puravi – Horse
Eeham – Fit
Those who did not know Tamil well spoke of her as a maiden affected by horse-fit and having a long face.
The son of Ugrasingan and Maruthppuraveehavalli was called Vararasasingan.
The copper-plate at Veeramunai Pillaiyar Temple, the capital of the ruler Ugrasingan stated that Kandy was his capital. What is referred to as Singainagar is Kandy is found in the well-circulating daily paper (Veerakesari of 08-02-96) with a long history that N.Navanayaka moorti has stated that ugrasingan’s capital Kandy is Singainagar. The word ‘Kandy’ means a man-made lake by damming water. In Singainagar there is such a lake . Within the city bounds, where the Palace stood, near it the lake (Kandy) is still there. The work called ‘Paralai Vinayagar Pallu’ says that Pararasasingan Nagar is Kandy. The Singainagar of then is now called Sangainagar. This confirms the fact of Kandy.
Emperor Vararasa Singan
Vararasa Singan ascended the throne of Singai Empire at Singainagar in the year 822AC Vararasa Singan built the Adhikonesar Kovil (Tambalagamam Temple). It is stated that this temple was built by Vararasa Singan about 400 years ago. Which is stated in the Thirukkonasala Puranam, Thambainagar Padalam 15th Century. Varagunapandyan defeated Vararasa Singan. This is stated in the copper plate of Sinnamanur. But he was not killed. Because Pallava soldiers of a large number were sent to foreign countries to defend Pallava seats of rule, Varaguna Pandyan was able to defeat Vararasa Singan.
Valasingan son of Vararasasingan became the Singai Emperor in the year 861 AC. His rule extended to the whole of Eelam. Kathirkamam was under his rulership. At Unnarasu Giri there was his Palace. He built the Veeramunai Pillaiyar Temple, this is borne out by the Copper foil of Thanthotreswarar Kovil of Kokkatticholai. He performed sacred work for up keep of Muneeswaram Temple, and donated lands to the temple. The regions around Munneswaram was under his rule. Valasinghan entered matrimony by the nuptial tie to unnarasugiri princess Adagasundari. Singai Emperor Valasinga Maharasa during the period of his reign under took reloading and extending sacred work (renovate and rebuilt) Munneswaram Temple Chillaw and also performed the pinnacle ceremony (Kudamulukku). He donated to the temple sixtyfour villages under his rulership.
East – Veerapandyam, Brahmanapuram, Kaluvamadu
South – Maruthankulam, Kakkapalli, Irattaikulam, Manatkulam, Pookkulam, Thamaraikkulam, Pottuvil
West – Iranaivil, Salabam
North – Karakkupanai, Mampuri, Kottaikaati, Kusalai, Manavari, Anaivilunthan, Tharangkattu, Palavi, Pooncholai, Anairakkam, Thongatkadu, Udappu, Vannathi Villu, Pirappankulam, Pulichakkulam, Andimunai, Poonaippitti, Ottraipanai, Kattaikadu, Koththanthivu, Munthal, Mangala Veli, Mathuranguli, Ponparappippattu, Thethappalai, Katpitti, Surivil, Pannayadikulam, Mandaikondan, Theerthakkarai, Kaluvamadu, Muththuppanthi, Karaivetti, Maruthancholai and Many others. At these places only Tamils lived. In 1576AC, Portuguese who invaded Ceylon, destroyed this temple by breaking it. In 1753AC the Kandian King Keerti Sri Raja Singan rebuilt the temple. In the neighborhood Maanavari Sivan Temple was in a dilapidated state. The river Mayavanaru (Dedruoya) ran along it. A stone carving of Nanaddar belongs to 10th century AC consist that the Tamil Kings ruled Anourpuri during 9th and 10th centuries AC.
Valasingan’s son Rasasingan ruled Singai Empire from 895 AC to 930 AC.
Rasasingan’s son Segararasa ruled Singai Empire from 930 AC up to 949 AC; Paranthaga Chozhan mounted war and during this battle Segararasa attained the heaven of the Brave (Veeraswargam). The Tamil work ‘Iraiyanar Ahapporul’ details the history of the demise of King Segararasa. The Chozha King Paranthagan appointed his commander as ruler of Manipuram and renamed it Chozhapuram. Paranthagan (Sananathan) went to Wanni overran it and named Pulathiyanagar, Sananatha Mangalam. This was made the seat of rulership.
Rasasegaran battled and killed the Chozha commander and from 950 AC crowned him self the ruler of Singainadu. Rasasegaran increased troop strength of Valour, made Singai rulership a force to contend with that the Chozha forces feared attempt of congest Paranthaga Chozhan went to wanni and Rasasegaran recaptured Pallavam. He ruled until 998AC. Chozahan never returned from Pulathiyanagar, because he would lose both seats of rulership.
Rasapallavan son of Rasasegaran assumed the rule of Singai Nadu from the year 999 AC up to 1038 AC. In the year 1038 AC, the Chozha King Rajathirajan killed the ruler of Singainagar. From Pulthiya Nagar he extended his rule over the whole of Eelam. His commander was appointed to rule Singai Nadu.
King Singai Pararasa
Kalingarasa ruler of Singainadu killed the Chozha Commander and assumed the rule of Singai Nagar in 1038 Kalingan was also known as Singai Pararasa. In the year 1042AC attained the Heaven of the Valour (Veeraswargam) when Rajaraja Chozhan killed him. Constant and repetitive attacks by Chozhar from 949 AC, the Singai Royal family got weakened. Owing to the repetitive attacks of the Chozhas the King of Singai Nagar were killed. The Singai royal family and the Singai people resolved to drive out the Chozhas from Eelam.
The Chozha’s attacked Singai and destroyed it and plundered its wealth; gold, precious stones and else. In the year 1042 AC, Pararasa’s son Kulasegaran recaptured the rule of Singainadu. The economy dwindled. The Chozha Rulership of strength from 949AC came and attacked Singai. The rulers were defeated or killed. The rulership had to change often and this weekend it and made for instability. At the same time the Chozha rule Strengthened itself at Pulathiyanagar. In 1054, Kulasegaran was killed by Chola and attained the Heaven of the Valorous (Veeraswargam). Manimangalam Sasanam states that Chola conquest resulted in the death of three rulers of Singai Nagar.
Rasapallavan ruled Singai nadu from 1054 AC to 1063 AC, owing to the repeated attacks of Chozhas and Pandiyas the Eela Tamils of Singai Empire were killed. The Tamil population of Eelam dwindled. Because the Singai rulers resisted the dominance of Chozhas, the soldiers of Singainadu fell. The Singai rulers Segararasa in 949 AC, Rasapallavan in 1038 AC, Pararasa in 1042 AC and in 1054 AC, Kulasegaran fought as the unbending Pallavas and fell. Rasapallavan ruled only for 10 years. Chozha Rajendran’s conquest claimed him. At Pulathiyanagar a large Choza army stood amassed it was easy to overrun Singai and its rulers.
In the year of 1064 AC, Elelasingan conquered the Chozha troops, defeated the Chozhas and in the year 1064 AC, ascended the throne of Singai Nadu. He strengthened and firmed the rulership of Singai Empire. He was valorous and under his rule the economy gained strength. He was a great philanthraphist with a great heart and up to today Elelasingan is thought of by the Tamils as a great, Valorous and generous ruler who achieved undying fame. He sustained artists by liberally rewarding them in India too Elelasingan’s fame spread, the son of Rasapallavan.
In Athirampattinam in South India a blind musician named Iragavan sat on the raised ‘Thinnai’ of his home played the ‘yarl’ (Stringed musical instrument and sang). Those who passed by heard him, please by his music and seeing his plight placed money on the spread cloth before his home. His spouse took the money, bought the necessaries and cooked food for the two. One day there was no money – the hungry Ragavan requested her to serve food. His angered and hungered spouse reviled him. Your music on instrument and your song won’t bring land or elephant, there is no collection; there is no food she admonished him. Ragavan fell ashamed by his wife’s admonition. As such, he left his home and traversed the land in the hope that some ruler would recognize his talent for music and sustain him. On hearing from behind the curtain Ragavans rendering of his poetic talent, the King Elalesingham was overjoyed and ordered the removal of the curtain. He asked Poet Ragavan ‘What shall I gift you’?
The blind poet Ragavan related his plight in his place Athirapattinam in South India, that he suffered sorrow as he could not provide rice and vegetables daily from the coins given to him for his music by passer by, that his spouse suffered his poverty and that he would like the gift of a place (land) and elephant. The king gifted him gold, precious stones and elephant and a place called ‘Manattidar’. The talented musician of song and excellent instrument musician ‘Yarlpanan’ and the villages ‘Manattidar’ came to be called ‘Yalppanam’. The region called ‘Manttidar’ at that was composed of ‘navanthurai’, ‘Pasaiyur’ and ‘Karaiyur’ and became the possessions of the musician and family. There Ragavan built a home, the elephant tied on the land and his spouse too came to live there in happiness. Owing to this act of generosity of the Elalasinghan, the Singai ruler, his fame spread far and wide. He defeated the Cholas and brought Eelam under him.
From the above-told story of gift made by Elalasingham, in Yarlpanam only ‘Panar’ (Musicians) families dwelt there, with the receding of rulership of kings, in the 17th century with the entry of the Portuguese into Ceylon (Lanka), who built their fort in Jaffna and who called it first the Kingdom of Jaffna. After that peninsula Jaffna was called ‘Yalpanakkudanadu’. The red soil region of Jaffna was faultily thought of as ‘Manattidar’ (sand area). The region nearest the ‘Pannaikadal’ was gifted to the blind musician says the literature P. Jeganathan, S. Rasanayagam states that the region given to the musician yarl panar was composed of Pasaiyur and Karaiyur. Also he says that historians concocted the tale that yalpanan was crowned, that ponpattiyur Pandi Mazhavan went to India brought the Chozla Prince, Pandya Prince was brought and crowned. Neither Singha Rajyam nor Nallur Rajyam cannot be said to be Jaffna Kingdom. Also that Jaffna Kingdom came into being in the 13th Century AC is another confusion of historical events.
Eelam was under the rule of Pararasasingan son of Elelasingan too. The poet Veeragavan’s composition ‘Arur Ula’ was sung in praise of Pararasasingan. The work gets ‘Thiruvarula’ for the poets word to enjoy the sweetness given by the joyful experience of Sivagnam (Knowing Lord Siva) for all sung by Veeraragavan poet song of excellence, for all to enjoy its goodness. The rising roar is akin to the song All over gifts poured – like kumkum toned full-brawn, courageous Pararasasingham gifted a rain of gold. When full-brawn courageous Pararasasingan heard the poet composition gifted him leap of gold coins and elephant. His reign covered the period 1086 AC to 1140 AC. The poet on returning to India tied the elephant at the entrance of his home. The poet Puhazhendi heard of the king of munificence and set-off to Singainagar to pour out his compositions before him. The work ‘Paralai Vinayagar Pallu’ states the king ruled from Kandy. That Singai Nagar was called Kandy is indicated in the copper plates of Veeramunai Pillaiyar Temple, Thirukkovil and Thurai nilavanai Temple Sasanam. The Jaffna peninsula it is said was called ‘Kandinadu’ in the 12th and 13th centuries.During his reign a prince from the royalty of Singainagar entered into marriage with the Pulathiyanagar ruler Vijayarajah’s younger sister mittha. Veerapperumal (Veeravagu) The eldest son of mittha entered into nuptial link around the year 1120 AC with Singainagar princess Ratnavalli. In order for protection their offspring Sathasivaperumal (Parakramabahu 1) from the time of his birth and early childhood and later lived in Singainagar (P.M.Selvadurai).Veeraperumal built a temple for God Siva and stayed there with his wife and done poojas and prayed for a son. With reward of God Siva queen blessed with a son. His son named Sathasivaperumal by Veeraperumal to thank God Siva. Sathasivaperumal rebuilt 77 temples of Siva and erected 29 new temples for God Siva.He built a dagoba which was called Tamilathubam.
Rasasekaran son of Pararasasingan was crowned Pallava ruler in 1140 AC. Rameswaram was earlier under the rulers of Singai. After the mighty Chozhas brought it under them Brahmins were made sub-rulers under them; they were called Sethupathirajas. Even after the end of Chozha rule in Eelam, Rameswaram continued to be under them. King Rasasekeran collected his forces and conquered the sethupathirajahs and brought Rameswaram under the rule of Singainagar. There by his fame spread through out Chera, Chozha, Pandya and Thandaimandalam. The poet Puhazhendhi traveled to Singainagar and sang song in praise of this Valliant king and received gift from him states ‘Thamil Navalar Charthai’ (The history of Tamil Poets). His composition of praise on the ruler speaks thus:-
The guards who serve at the entrance of the ruler under his pay an kept the poet standing ruled over the nine Kandys on whose chest and shoulders shone ornaments of gold ruled over Meru – Singai arya Sekaran. The poets of mainland Thamilnadu to dispel their want and display their worth traveled to Singainagar tells the tale that of their deep interest in Tamil and their open-handed largesse. Rasasegaran defeated the Sethupathy arya Brahmin the hard Puhazhendi showered his praise ‘Singhai Arya Segaran’ and received a thousand gold coins and an elephant. On conquering Sethu, Rajasegeran embossed on the coins ‘Sethu’, also it was during his period that the kings image was imprinted on the coins.
When King Rasasekeran ghoul the mortal coil Poet Puhazhendhis out pouring of his grief speaks thus:
Oh destiny the day
We dost the Vadalarya Sovereign
Our ruler whose largesse
Flowed in his gift
To cool the eye
Will the fire burn his
The coins issued by Rasasegaran was published by Professor Krishnarajah. Nandi (Bull) is lying to leftwords. The front right leg is seen stretched a little and folded. The strong swelled shoulder is depicted; The remarkable feature is the two ‘kuththuvilakkus’ (the tall – stemmed lamps), over the ‘nandi’ is seen a long crescent a below it three stripes and on the posterior of the coin two lines. Below the letters are orderly dots. The letters tell coins issued by Singai Aryachakravarthi and such coins were first issued by them says Iravatham Mahadevan. On there coins the word ''Sri Rajasegara ''conveys the fact that Singaiarya Chackaravarthy Rajasekaran has issued these coins before 1250 AC adds Professor Krishnarajah.
Emperor Rasasegaran issued these coins; the crescent represents the sictee-moon worn on the head by God Siva. The three lines depict the holy ash on foreheads. The ball in the emblem on the kings flag and the long – stemmed lamps are symbols of facility. There coins speak of the deep sivagama devotion of the ruler. In Ratmalana in Thirunandeeswaram Temple built by the Pallavas and can be inferred that this temple was restored by Rasasegaran. Researchers place the period of the temple in the 11th and 12th century AC. It is said in Vannipuwatha that the language of royal court of Maha Parakramavahu is Tamil. There were language experts in Tamil ,Pali,Sanskrit and kela in his judicial court. But there was no expert for sinhala. Sinhala was not in use in his period , He was a chieftain in mahavanny.( P.M.Selvadurai) .Therefore he was a sub ruler under the Singai Emperor Rajasekaran.
The kings who ruled in Singai and won the Sethupathis of Ramanathapuram of Pandinad were called as Singai Arya Chakravarthies. The pearl fishing of west sea (Mannar) of Ceylon was under the Singai Kings for a very long period. From Ramanathapuram to Mannar Sethu (Bridge) was under the Singai Kings of Singai. Therefore they had the title of ‘Sethu Kavalor’said by N.K.S Thiruchelvam.
Emperor Segarasa Pararajasingan
The son of ruler Rasasegaran ascended the throne in 1176 AC. During his period of rule a great famine occurred to relieve the famine. Sadaiappa Vallal (great philanthrophist) of South India sent a thousand ship-load of paddy; on this gift is told in Chozla mandala Pathikum thus:
‘The sweet-pleasant stron pararasa singanar was born for sen thamil mounds of millions of paddy to reach Kandynad in a thousand ships sent by fertile Cholanad’s Sadaiappahs open handedness.’
At this period the upland Kandy city had not been constructed. The stone inscription of Parakrama Pandyan confirms Singainagar as the capital city of Lanka (Pandaya Eelam). Although in South Sri Lanka, there were principalities of Pulathiyanagar, Anourapuri ,Kotte, and Kandy, the capital of Lanka was Singainagar.
Emperor Visaya Kaalinga Chakravarti
Kaalingan was crowned king of Singainagar in the year 1210 AC. This son of Segarasan was lover of war. He defeated the sub-rulers of South Sri Lanka when they failed to pay tribute and won military honors. He was celebrated by poets as Visayakalinga Chakaravarti. Kaalingan - nagan, Chakaravarti – emperor meaning great king (Mahone). Singainadu had been ruled by naga hierarchy continually for quite a long time. Kaalingan and Kalingan are miss constructed as being the same. Kalingan came from India in the year it is stated. It was endeavored to prove that the Pallava came from mainland India. The Pallava rulers, were the evolved class of state head of the Naga civilisation. Naga Kings are descendants of Kasipa muniver of Pulathiangar and wife surasai who is Thakkans daugther.
They permitted the sub-rulers who paid tributes to them to govern. The Singai rulers were, Eelams great kings, protectors of Saivaism, and Visaya Kalingam achieved the fame of making continuously Tamil a governing language of all over the island. In Valikamam, Thamilapattinam, the forces of Visaya Kalingan were stationed. In every village of Eelam Tamils dwelled. Large troops consignments and barracks were at Singainagar, Mahakamam and Pulathiyanagar. Mahone at Manipuram brought Pulathianagar Kathiraveli (Thoppwai) under him and through his able leadership of the forces Kathirkamam, Vijayathweepakam and Ramaswaram brought under the Singai rule. His minister Puliyamaran built a fort and made its chief Chuhathiran. Pararasasegaran and Parakramavahu were sub-rulers under Visayakalingan. Belonging to the royal line Visayakalingan known as Vettinahan was a descendant of Ugrasingnahan according to ‘Vaiyapadil’.
In Rajarata there was a big Tamil population and gave their support to the Tamil forces who came there. This is found in the work called ‘Saththarmaratnakaraya’. Visayakalingan in over coming Rajarata, Mayarata and Ruhunaratta was called Thiribuvana Chakravarti. He maintained Saivaism in these regions and under took saiva religious work. The performance of Poojas were done by Saivaites. Mahone as this king was known; during his time Chera, Chola and Pandya forces under him have disembarked at Manipuram. To advice Vijayabahu III (Tamil Vannirasa) to his son Parakramvahu II was that we (Chieflains) ought to live in amity with the Tamil Kings. Also he advised that the Tamils were strong and not to engage in battles with them”. This confirm the fact that the Tamils were in majority.
Singai Empire 13th & 14th Century
- Singai Nagar (Capital)
Chilaw and Munneswaram were under Mahone. The whole of Lanka was under him. Owing to this fact Saiva practices and Tamil ways were incident in all village. Along with the classifications at Batticaloa of Vellalar and Vannimais have continued up to date says K. Thangeswari also work related classifications (Kulam) fourteen in number still continues. During Mahone’s (Visayakalingan) reign at Sambukovalam and Uratturai were merchant harbours and merchant ships plied to and fro from there. Twentyfour-thousand fighters made up Mahone’s troop – strength. Rulers of South Sri Lanka combined and attempted to overcome Mahone. But they didn’t meet with success. His rule of strength sent them into disarray. Mahone defeated the Chola – Kanga dynasty rulers. He also put to defeat the ruler of Polonaruwa and from Polonaruwa ruled Lanka for about 44 years. His remarkable success earned him the title Visayakalinga Chakravarti (emperor). In Sinhalaworks he is called Vijayabahu. Mahone established an independent Singai Tamil rulership embracing the whole of Sri Lanka.
His battalions were stationed in the forts and defense ranges at Urathurai (Kayts), Kankesanthurai, Singanagar, Ilupai Kadavai, Koddaiarupuram (mutur), Trincomalee, Kantalai, Periyakulam, Mannar, Mathottam, Pulathiyanagar, Kolombakala (Anourpuri) and Mahagamam. The work Cholavamsa states that he ruled the whole of Rajaratta from Pulathiyanagar and also spread to a greater part of Mayaratta Chulavamsa contains the fact that Kotmale, Dambadeniya, Wattala, Kalaniya and Attanagala was under his rulership. His troop strength was 44,000. His sub-ruler Kulakkottan ruled Trincomalee.
He had 44,000 troops under him. Chulavamsam given the fact that both are Tamil rulers. Cholavasam means Chola Dynasty rulers of south lanka. In the rule of 136 years cholars originated a mixed new dynasty through their marriages with chieftains families of the south Ceylon.In 13th Century newly originated Sinhalese were settled by Mahone in the territories between Kotte and Galle and defind a boundary for them which was called Mahone boundary. Sinhalese were originated from the slaves who brought Ceylon by Cholas in the 11th and 12th centuries. They spoke colloguial Sinhale in 13th Century and made it as a language from Tamil, Pali and Sanskrit in the 15th Century.
In 1256 Chieftain who were removed from ruling Parakramabahu II, Bavanehabahu, Veeravahu, Vijayabahu IV and three Pandyans combined and attempted to overcome Mahone but they didn’t meet with success.
Kalinga Chakravarti ascended the throne at Pulathiyanagar and in 1215 crowned his younger brother pararasa as the Singai King ruling from Singainagar in the year 1215 AC and helped in strengthening his rule. Kalinga Mahone was also known as Kalinga Emperor. Pararasa ruled under Kalingan’s strong rulership until the year 1224 AC Sunthara Pandiyan killed Pararasa. Pandiyan joining the Chozha came to Pallavam and engaged in war.
Kaalinga Chakravarti made Jeyadevan of royal lineage as sub-ruler in the year 1224 AC. Jeyadevan too was killed by Pandyan in 1246 AC. Visaya Kalingan crowned his son Kulasegeran ruler of Pallavam in the year 1246 AC. During the reign of Visayakalaingan from Pulathiyanagar he constructed a wide roadway (Peruntheru) from Pallavam’s eastern shore line, connecting nagarkovil, Vettilaikkerni, Kattakkadu and Vannankulam and at the places this wide roadway passed through defense stations were established. Kalingarasas forts were at Pulathiyanagar (Polanaruwa), Pulachcheri (Poonahari), Kottayarupuram (Muthur), Kantalai, Kandapalai (Nuwara Eliya), Kurunthu (Kurunegala), Padaviya (Vanni), Mathulena (Matale), Thamilpattinam (Singainagar), Uratturai, Nanaddan, Mannar, Kaliodai, Kolannuwara (Colombo), Mahagama (Magamai Kathirkamam). He protected the Saivaites from persecution from Pali Buddhist and their being made to cowdown. Only Tamils constituted his forces. It was stated in Culavamsam that Mahinda a Tamil sub ruler (a territory in south) with Jeyavahu were in Kalinga Mahone’s rule (P. Pushparatnam)
Emperor Kulasekara Singai Aryachakravarti
Kulasekaram son of Vijayakalingan ascended the throne of Singainagar in 1246 AC. His father crowned him as King. He shone as a ruler of Vallour and courage. He overcame the Sethupathies of Rameswaram and brought it under the rule of Singainagar. His victory received praise from the poets who favoured him with the title Singai Arya Chakravarthi. In overcoming the Sethupathies to commentate the victory coins were issued with the name ‘sethu’ embossed on them by his father. His forebear Visaya Kalinga Chakravarty defeated all the rulers of South Sri Lanka and ruled from Pulthiyanagar, his son Kulasekaram ruled from Singainagar with the title Kulasekara Singai Arya Chakravarti sayings in Tamil are expressive in telling that even if thousand palms endeavor to conceal their glory of the sun, they cannot, likewise no one can command the roaring seas full of waves to cease, Kulasekarams glory cannot be denied, thus Kulasekaram royal lineage tided over the various challenges to confirm their strength and power over adjacent territories. The Brahmin Sethupathies installed by the Pandyas were overcome and Rameswaram came under Kulasekaram. Enraged by this conquering of Rameswaram the ruler Suntharapardyan massed a big army and fought relentlessly and defeated Kulasekaram in 1256 AC. Following the defeat, Visayakalingan proceeded from Pulathiyanagar with his troops and defeated Suntharapandyan, thus Sethu came under the Singai Arya Chakravartis. After Visayakalingan returned to Pallavam. After his return once again Pandyan together with the South Lankan rulers captured Pulathiyanagar. Owing to this Visayakalinga Pallava Chakravarti ruled from Singainagar. In 1259 AC Sadavarman together with Veera Pandyan the 2nd and other sub-rulers massed together massive troops and came to Eelam and fought. When Pallavas were extremely strong the South Indian Chera, Chozhos, Pandyas were overcome their strong ruling centre was established at Kanjeepuram. The Pandya rulers enlisted the support of the South Lanka rulers to prevent the Pallavas storming them. Those who had gone from South India in the 11th Century to save their lives secretly to the Eelam as rough-boat entrants were given refuge by the rulers of Visaya Kalinga Chakravarti had repulsed maneuvers to enter, he had defined the areas where the Sinhalese could live together with Tamils who were there and up to 1948, Mahone’s defining boundaries were maintained.
In the year 1259 AC, the Kalinga Chakravarti who fought valiantly was killed. Veerapandiyan plundered immense wealth went to Trincomalee and embossed his twinfish emblem on the wall of Koneswaram Temple there and raised his twin-fish pennant. At that time Trincomalee was under the rulership of the Singai Arya Chakravartis. Kulasekeram fought once again and drove Veerapandiyan to South India. Thus upto 1262 AC Kulasekeram established his firm rule and justified his royal title of Kulasekara Singai Arya Chakravarti.
Emperor Kulothunga Singai Arya Chakravarti
The son of Kulasekeran Kulothungan in 1262 AC took up the tittle of Aryachakravarti and ruled from Singainagar. He paid attention to enhance cultivation and made efforts to increase income. The Singai rulers had initiated the raising of Cinnaman in the west of Sri Lanka and encouraged. Trade from Cinnamon brought a large income to Singainadu, also in the Western shore the Singai rulers controlled pearl fishing. To wrest this pearl fishing Buvanikabahu I started a war. The whole of Lanka came under the rulership of Kulothungan, thus he affirmed the strength of the Singai rulers. He was a man of great knowledge. From 1263 AC the whole of Lanka for 20 years was under the Singai rule. This is stated in the Tamil work ‘Sarasothimalai’ which was written by Posaraja Pandithar (Panditha Parakramabahu). Royal court at Thambadeny. H.W constrington has stated that for twenty years there had been no ruler. The work ‘Maha Vamsam’ too does not refer to this. After that tribute was paid to Kulothunga Arya Chakravarti and there had been authorized rule. Therefore it is clear that in the whole of Sri Lanka the Singai Emperors had over whelming power.
Emperors of Singai built forts in Puttalam, Chilaw, Negombo, Wattala, Pananthurai and Velapuram (Kalathurai) to keep the pearl fishing under their control and to leavy taxes in these sea ports and controlled the sub-rulers . Nearly 11 villages were under the Panathurai since 11th Century AC, Kalikovil, Nedumalai, Nantheeswaram, Pampihathurai, Palathoddam and others. All Sivan Temples and all Nantheeswaram temple were erected by the Singai Kings in these regions. Vijayakalingan crafted a stone head near Wattala bridge with Nanthi Embalem after erected Namtheeswaram temple in Wattala. Kandy Kingdom and Kotte Kingdom have no ports and sea trade. All ports and sea trade of Ceylon were under the Singai Arya Chakravarthi (N. K. S. Thiruchelvam, Thinakural)
Emperor Vickramasingai Aryachakravarti
Vickramasingan Aryachakravarthy succeeded his father Kulothungan to the Singainagar throne in 1283 AC. In the year 1284 AC Marco Polo the famous traveller and writer through Sambukovalam to Singainagar stated the whole of Lanka was under the rule of Santhmin the Jaffna King . It is clear that Singai ruler is referred to him as Santhamain. During this time some Sinhalese resorted to creating disturbance in South Lanka; they were arrested and after an inquiry; suffered death sentence. In Ceylon history this is the first time stated about Sinhalese. Marco Polo further goes on to say that between 1284 AC and 1303 AC. There was no king or rule at (Yapahuwa) Suppamalai.
Marco Polo has recorded that there is no ruler or ruling in Suppamalai (Yapahoo) from 1284 to 1303 AC and ships came to the port of Sambu Kovalam from China and Arabia in connection with trade. Also trade goods scented wood brought to Sambukovalam were loaded and sent to other ports. Historical work on Jaffna has remarked that in order to avoid paying tribute, South Sri Lanka rulers shifted their centers of rulership to Kurunegala, Dambadeniya and Gampola. The right to pearl – fishing in the western ocean came under the Singainagar rulers. Buvanekabahu the Yapahuwa ruler fought the Singai Emperor and lost the battle. Buvenekabahu’s son appealed to KulasekarPandiyan and Pandiyan’s request the Singai Emperor agreed that Buvenekabahu’s son could rule paying tribute.
Emperor Varothaya Singai Aryachakravarti
Varothayan son of Vickremasingan ascended the throne of Singainagar as Aryachakravarti in 1302 AC. Sandira Segara Pandyan of Madurai was overcome by his enemies and driven out of the capital Madurai. He came to his friend Varothayan and Varothaya Aryachakravarti along with his massive troops taking Sandira Segara Pandyan across the seas and fought a fierce and blood spattered battle and restored Pandiyan to the rulership of Madurai. The daughter of Singai Arychakravarti (The daughter of Varothayan, Padmini) married. Sittur of Rajaputtan’s ruler Rattansingh. Padminis skin was of an enchanting color (brown) and of such beauty that she was very attractive. The details are found in the inscription of sittur fort which had been found lately.Professor Kalyanasundaram, who carried out research on Saraswati Malahal’s history (period 1310AC) states that the Rameswaram bridge was under the control of Singai Arya Chakravarti’s and those who traveled along this (to and for) were the Singai Aryachakravartis and the beautiful Padmini is the daughter of Singai Aryachakravarti
While Varothayan was in India the some chieftains of south Vanni engaged in revolt and endeavored to cease paying tributes, to reinforce their revolt they called South Lanka rulers to join them. Owing to their earlier experience in battles the South Lanka rulers refused their request. Owing to this their endeavor failed. On his return from India Varothayan held an inquiry in connection with the attempted revolt and punished the offenders.
Around 1322 AC the catholic priest Braiar Odorir on his travels came to the Singainagar’s port. He described Singai ruler when he met had seen as one who appearance displayed excellence and described the jewels he wore and his attire in detail.
Emperor Marthanda Singai Aryachakravarti
Marthandai Singi Chakravarti son of ruler Varothayan ascended the throne of Singainagar in the year 1325 AC. During his reign he ruled over the whole of Lanka is stated by the well-known traveller Ibin Battula. Ibn Battula travelled to Sivanolipathamalai (Adam’s peak) with the escort given to him by the Singai Marthanda Emperor. This traveller has indicated in his recordings that the Singai Emperor has on remarkable control of the sea and sea-trade. Singai Emperors had ascendancy over the South Sri Lanka rulers in the 12th 13th 14th and 15th Centuries. In the year 1340AC the fort of vital importance of Singai Aryachakravarti was Pandura. In Gampola, the ruler was Alagakone. Goods imported form India were taken to the Gampola rajiam (rulership) through Panadura. The Commanding officer of the Gampola rulership was Alageswaran and he was in control of this commerce. The navy of the Singai Aryachakravarti were at Panadura and the naval vessels traveled to and for alone this route. The custom officials of the Singai Aryachakravarti imposed taxes from Panadura. Sagam (Chillaw), Dunratta (the three korales) Dumbara (Kandy), Singunuwana (Sinthuranagar, Galle), Palavita (Balangoda) Matale, are regions coming under the customs control of Singai Aryachakravarti, the custom’s officials were in charge of imposing taxes (from the work ‘Sandesa quoted by N.K.S. Thiruchelvam Thinakkural of 02-08-2009) for the goods imported by the Kandy and Kotte rulerships, the taxing came under the customs of the Singai Arya Chakravartis
From Ibn Battulas recordings the fact that where pearl-fishing in the West sea was conducted the king was in his palace in proximity situated it Battale; it is understood to be Wattala. The indication accession of the King at that time taken to protect trading from sea-pirates, South-Lanka rulers, the trade article being precious pearls and the foreign traders who flocked to purchased pearl-fishing used to be under – taken under the direct supervision of the king. Mathandai Singai Aryachakravarti created an exclusive forum for the Tamil poets, gave support and thereby growth of the sixty-four Tamil arts. According from to recording of the Englishmen Wattala to Negombo, Chillaw and Puttalam the Tamil speaking people lived these during English rule.
The sovereigns ruled, crown on head, seated on the throne, scepter in hand, these Pallava kings of Singai Empire were many and the rulership was unfettered. The coins embossed with bull and crescent, and the word ‘sethu’ belonged to the Singai kingdom pointed out Reverent Gnanapragasar an encient Tamil scholar. The muslim pilgrim Iban Battula came to Lanka to pay obeisance at Adain’s peak in the year 1344 AC.
From Ibn Battutas recordings
On the sea-voyage, on the ninth day we reached the Battala coast of lanka. On disembarkation we were confronted by image – worshipper who querries ‘who are you?’ I am the brother-in-law and friend of the king of Corramandel, on my way to meet him I came here; also gifts brought for him are in the ship, Ibn Battuta said. They carried my message to the king and as the king was there, they were able to communicate what I had said to him.
Aryachakravarti sent his message to come to him, his capital was at Battala. The Kings court was clean and encircled by a wall on the coastal side cinnamon stumps were seen a plenty, cinnamon that had been peeled lay in heaps at the boundary. As there were cinnamon trees in plenty it may have been Wattala. As I approached the image worship ruler, he requested me to sit by his side and conversed with me graciously saying ‘your companions can disembark from the ship safely and my guest until all of you re-start your voyage’. He commanded his work-staff to make arrangements for my stay there. We stayed there for three days. I was treated royally. Day-by-day I receive greater attention. The king knew the Persian Language. I recited many tales about the lands and their king and king listen to these appreciatively. One day I saw the king having pearls in his hands. These pearls were from the seas within the rulership of the king obtained from pearl-fishing. The servers of the king were sorting out the pearls in accordance with their quality.
The king querried ‘have you seen pearls fishing in any of the lands you visited? Yes, Ibn Assam’s ownership Goidiv, I have seen pearl-fishing. The king showered the pearls in his hand and querried whether those pearls can compared to these? I did not such quality pearls Ibn replied. Gladdened by my reply the king said ‘these are yours’. He also added you can request any thing you need, do not hesitate or feel abashed. I gave the reply, that I wish to pay homage Adams feet. That is not difficult the king said. He ordered a palanquin and four palanquin's bearers and to accompany me ten personages and to keep the correct direction fifteen guards. Ibn Battuta has remarked in his recordings that there was a ruling centre at Konagari (Kurunagala) and he describes the gemstones and the gem studded jewellery. The blue gem stone was called Sapphere .It is stated and Devanagar (At the 7th milestone from Matara) that there was a massive Saiva temple; this temple had a large statue, the size of a man, and that the eyes shone with red gem-stone, the city obtained its name Devanagar was called after the this statue. The women of the island of Lanka woman adorned them selves with necklaces and chains, bangles in the hand and anklets called ‘Kolusu’ adoned their feet. These were especially ornaments of the Tamils. To kill cows was contrary to Saiva Worship. It was the practice to give to the king of the gem stones to the value of 100 panam are given to king. Gems studded crowns adorned the kings. Aryachakravarti had a tray that was palm-sized adorned with gemstones says Ibn Battula. Ibn Battuta was a scholar, and was religions personage. He functioned as judge to the Delhi Kings. Thus Ibn Battutas is very explicit in what he says . The Singai King to oversee Salabam pearl-fishing resided at the palace at Battala. Salabam was known for pearl-fishing.
Malai Div Sailors called paradesis described the Singainagar ruler and Singainadu to Battuta. Not all merchants could go safety into Singai port. The Singai king is described as harsh and unjust. At the port is seen pirate sea-vessels. The Singai King did not permit any others to pearl-fish in the Indian Ocean. Ibn Battuta describes that near the shore these were more than 100 sea – vessels but he does not mention seeing sea-pirate vessels. (Before the establishment of the Kingdom of Kotte) up to Devinagar (Matara) the Singai king ruled and at about this time that Ibn Battula came to these regions on his travels. The Ratmalana Sivan Temple Nandeeswaram was restored by this Singai King.
This Singai Kings rule extended up to Matara and this is evidence to the fact that with the assistance of Singainagar ruler he reached Devanagar and worshipped at Thandeesvaram Sivan Temple and has remarked about the temple statue.
Emperor Gunapoosan Singai Arya Chakravarthi
Gunapoosanan son of Mathandiyan in 1346 AC was crowned Emperor of Singai Empire at Singainagar. The ruler increased the income of the land by the setting up to work centers for several types of work. He engaged weavers to weave cloth, establishing cloth works.
Emperor Virothaya Singai Aryachakravarti
In the year 1371AC Gunapoosan son Virothayan was crowned Emperor at Singainagar. During his period of region, agriculture, work-enhancement and educational uplift was undertaken. It is told that the Vijayanagar king sought the assistance of the Singainagar king defeated the South Lanka King and after he fought battle and went back. This is mentioned in the Ariyar Copper foil.
Emperor Segarajasegaram Singai Arya Chakravarthi
Virothayan’s son Seyaweeran become Emperor of Singai Empire in the year 1394 AC. He earned the title of Segaraja Segaran. He composed the Dakshina Kailaya Puranam, also a medical work titled Segaraja Segaram and an astrological work called Sekarasasekaramalai. It is said that a composition praising his rule had been composed. He is extalled as ‘Kanthamalai Aryar Kone’ in the war ‘Segarajasegaram’ Kanthamalai means Kathirkamam, Kathiramalai. He defeated the sub-rulers of the referred and brought Kathirkamam under the rulership of Singainagar. The composition extalls Segarajasegeran as ‘Sethukavalan as sethukavalan Vinjaivinju’. Segarajan’s rule extended up to sethukarai the coins issued by him the ‘Vidai’ and ‘Crescent’ are embossed beautifully. The work ‘Thedchana Kailasa Puranam’ names him in praise as Singai Aryan Sethukavalan’. Those who ruled Rameshwaran carried the title ‘Sethupathy’ and ‘Sethukavalan’. The name ‘sethu’ in the coins issued by the Singai rulers. Also in their praise of majesty. The tablet seen at Rameswaram carries the definiteness that Singai rulers ruled at Rameswaram.
Bavanekabahu ruler of South Lanka took the opportunity to start a war Seyaveeran was at Chillaw to oversee the peral-fishing. Seyaveeran over came Buranekabahu, Seyaveeran controlled the entire (Pearl –fishing) and its pennant carrying the lion. For twelve years Seyaveeran ruled over Lanka. After this Buvanekabahu son for through the Pandiya ruler his willingness to pay tribute and Seyaveeran gave assent to Buvenekabahus rule. Following this precedent many sub-rulers paid tribute to the Singainagar rulership and continued to govern their regions, There are its evident that for quite a long period in history Lanka was ruled by the Singai Emperors or by sub-rulers who ruled paying their tribute to the overall rulership of the Singai Emperors.
During the 14th Century Singainagar, the ruling centre of Aryachakravatis was very strong. While under Seyaveeran, his emissaries were repudiated by the King of Kotte when they asked the tribute to be paid. Seyaveeran sent his forces to Gampola and Kotte at the same time triumphed over the fighters there and his lion (Sinha) flag was hoisted there. His victory brought the whole of Lanka under his rule. He wanted his triumph engraved on stone. That if they didn’t pay tribute in the future they would suffer their being overcome by his forces and the resultant devastation. His victory was engraved on stone. Fort at Kottagamam The sasan and engraving on stone ‘sethu’. This engraving on stone belong to the 15th century says H.C.P.Bell.
Seyaveeran refers to Segarajasekeran after the death of Alageswaran the tributes was paid to Seyaveeran. Much later the following engraved stone was found in Kottegamam the details inscribed on this and not found in the composition Mahavamsam. It is dealt with differently ‘Kankkathikaram’ a work on Maths science by Karivaiya this verse is found.
The rulers of South Ceylon paid tributes in gold, when king Segarajasekaran ruled with an unbent sceptre from Singai, Segarajasekara Arya Chakravarti. Segarasasegaran son Kumarasuriyan ruled in Ramanathapuram under the Empireship of Segararasasekaram (Thedshawa Kailasa Paranam). Kangainadu, Pandyanadu and Sethu were ruled by Kumarasuriyan. Emperor Segarajasekaran ruled to whole Ceylon, Pandinad, Kangainadu & Sethu (Segarasaerkara Malai)
Thus the fame of Segarajasekaram as seen by the writer of the book on medical science. During the period of Segarajan’s rule medical men studied the human anatomy through dissecting dead bodies. This is confirmed by the work ‘Segarajasekaram’ made up of 2000 verses. Only 200 verses are now at hand. King Segarajasegaram was a great surgeon. According to K.M de Silva Singai rule extended up to River Kalani. The rule had also penetrated the region of Matale. Also sea-forces were sent to all ports of Ceylon.There is stonehead in Galle which was engraved in three languages Tamil,Chinese and Persian in 1409 AC by the chinese commander of chinese Emperor Xeng hei about the donations made by him to the Thandeeswaram Temple of Matara.It is important to note that sinhala language was not in use in Galle even in 1409 AC.
Singai Emperor Pararasasegeran
Seyaveeran’s son Gunaveeran ascended the Singai throne in the year 1414 AC. He took up the royal name Pararajasegaran. Although he was called Singai Pararajasegaran his name is Gunaveeran. He built the temple at Rameswaram in the year 1414 AC. This is confirmed by the stone inscription that was on the temple wall somewhere in 1900 AC this inscription was destroyed.
SINGAI ARYA CHAKRAVARTHI
During his reign Pararaja segeram 12000 the work on medical science in Tamil, a famed composition, composed Pararajasegaran; Singai under his rule brought out this famed composition on Tamil medical science consisting of 12,000 verses. Also there are the works called Pararajasegeram Angathipatham, and Pararajasegaram nayanvithi, works on medical science on body parts and the eye have his name on the compositions. During his reign the Singai empire gained much fame and was a sturdy empire.
Singai Empire 15th & 16th Century
- Singai Nagar
- Kandy Kingdom
- Kotte Kingdom
Emperor Kanagasurya Singai Aryachakravarti
Gunaveeran’s son Kanagasuriyan became the Emperor at Singainagar in the year 1440 AC. During the period 1440 AC Pararajasegeran and Segarajasegaran were born to him. In the year 1450 AC. Senbahapperumal came with forces and attacked Singainagar. Perumal seated on the black stallion killed Tamil solders amounting to thousands in Singainagar a river of blood flowed like an Elephant in an upset mood many were cut and killed. The royal palace was attacked and damaged. Kanagasooriyan the king escaped to vanni and his spouse children escaped to India with the help of his minister. The palace was attacked and the treasures plundered, the trade places too were attacked along with the royal palaces and suffered terrible damage. Singainagar collapsed under relentless attack on one and all. Still, because of the opposition of the people and king ,Senbahapperumal returned to Kotte with the plunder. But king Parakaramabahu ordered him to return to Singainagar and capture. After returning the plundered treasures he returned. The Brahmins of Maniddupuram welcomed him and treated him to a welcome feast . Several times he came from Kotte and attached Singainagar and plundered and returned.
In the year 1467 AC massing strong force fought ‘hard and defeated Senbagapperumal he killed Senbakaperumals commander Vijayabahu and Senpakperumal wounded and escaped to Kotte from the besieged and devasted Singainagar, Kanagasuriyan ruled. His son Pararajasegeran began raising a new city at Nallur (nagar means city). Endeavors were not made to raise the devastated Singainagar. In the year 1468 AC, Pararajasegaran defeated the South Lanka rulers of Kotte and Gampola and received tributes from them.
Senpahaperumal was the offspring between the union of a South Indian Panikkan(caretaker of elephants) Sathasivaperumal and the sister of Kumara Alageswaran (Parakramabahu VI) when Senbahapperumal first came to attack Singainagar with his forces, Puttalam Vannirasan Verl over came him and made him turn back. Second time Senpahaperumal defeated by Emperor Kanagasuriyan. Third time attacked the famed Singai fort the historical symbols, the vital palace copper foils carrying recordings, sasanams (treatices) paintings, priceless implements to of beauty were all destroyed, the attackers plundered gold and priceless stones (navamanis) and attacked the surrounding regions and Singainagar was set on fire.
During this period and after (15th and 16th centuries) that Sinhala literary works referred to Jaffna as Yappapattuna. he was unable to achieve an out right victory. Senbahapperumal returned to Kotte. Parakramabahu made him return again and again to Singai to create unrest. In the year 1467 AC, last Kanagasooriyan triumphed over Senbahapperumal and he injured and managed to escape. His commander Vijayabahu and forces suffered death. Singai Aryachakravarthi Emperors released coins with lion emblem to celebrate their victories (See Coins page) There were Kingdoms in Gampola, Raigama and Jaffna. Emperor of Jaffna Kingdom (Aryachakravarthi) had established a strong force and wealth. It was stated in Rajavalia as Trubute from Hill country and low country and custom taxes from all nine harbours of Ceylon were being collected by him. It is also confirmed by Madavala Sasanam (Pathmanathan).It was quoted in Culavamsam as stated as ‘Malla’ were Tamils. (Like Nissanka Malla, Sagasa Malla).