Singai Empire - Nallur
Emperor Pararajasegaran Singai Arya Chakravarthi
In the year 1478 AC, Kanagasooriyan son Pararasasegaran built a new fort in Nallur and commenced his rule. He was known as Nallai Pararasesekaran. His Queen came from Cholanadu princes Rajaluxmi .Pararasasekaram had second spouse from a Vellala family call Valliammai. His company( kanihai) was Atchuveli Mangathammaal. Emperor Pararajasekaran won the sub-king of Kotte Puvanegapahu IV (Senbahaperumal) and others and received tribute from Kotte King Parakramabahu in 1468 AC. To celeberate this victory poets honored him with the title “Sri Sanga Bothi Puvanegabahu” (AR No.356 of 1906) and wrote a book Pararajasekaran Ula. He built the Nallur Kandasamy Temple in 1475 .
Offspring from his Queen he begot three sons. Singhavahu was born in 1468 . Pandaram born was in 1476 and Kathirkamasegaran was born in 1480. Valliammai’s son was born in 1470 and named Paraniruba singa muthali. In the year 1485 AC, Sangili was born to Mangathammal. Parajasegaram ruled well, praised by the royal poets for his valour. Kathirkamasegaran’s name does not appear in Tamil works. In the Hill country from the time principalities came into existence (1340AC) Sengodan (wikramabahu) paid tribute to the Singai Arya Chakravarti and continued to rule. All ports were under the control of Singai Aryachakravartis. In the year 1505 AC the Kotte ruler stopped tribute to Singai Arya Chakravarthi and paid tribute to the Portuguese the Kandyan rulers continued to pay tribute to Singai Arya Chakravarthi and used the sea-route under Singai Aryachakravarti's control through which Indian merchandise was bought to them. The goods were taken to Kandy under the protection of the naval troops of Singai Aryachakravarti. Pararajasekaram ruled entire Ceylon (Thirukonasala puranam) .
From his early age Sangili entertained evil thoughts and had a nature of vengeance; he planned to take over the rulership from his father. His evil planning claimed the lives of Singavahu and Pandaram. There fore the King Pararasasegaran, made Kathirkamasegaran prince and employed bodyguards to prevent danger. Still Mangathammal and Sangili planned to capture the rule through intrigue. The rightful heir to Parasasegaran’s throne is Kathirkamsegaran born to the King with his nuptial tie with Quees Rajalukshmi. Thus in line with tradition the royal assembly and with the peoples acknowledgement Rasasegaram son of Kathirgamasekaram was made king in the year 1561 AC.
Although royalty is permitted to have other ties like kantharvamanam (marriage of their desire) but the offspring have, no claim to the throne. Therefore many facts lack credibility royal alliances, except-with royalty are not accepted as of royal lineage. Several wrongful facts have muddled the history of the Singai Kingdom. Pararasasegaran born in 1440 AC was killed in 1621 AC, Paraniribasingam born in 1470 AC to have died in 1630 AC, and Sangili born in 1485 AC to have ruled as the ruler of Jaffna up to 1621 AC are all fallacious.
Kathirkamasegaran was made crown Prince of Nallur. Sangilis treachery and intrigue were known. The king was keen on encouraging Saiva tradition, knowledge and worship. He carried in his heart the holy lotus feet of God Siva. He constructed nallainagar and the surrounding temples – Sattanathar Kovil, Kailayanathar Kovil, Veilukantha Pillaiyar Kovil and Veeramakaliamman Kovil and erected a massive temple for Lord Kanthasamy at Nallur. He installed the Tamil Academy (Thamil Sangam) for the poetic geniuses to encourage the language and thereby literacy inspiration. At Nallur a Tamil Library was set up. He brought down Tamil intellectuals from Tamilnadu to enhance interest in Tamil and its growth. Ola manuscripts in the original were copied and preserved from future uncertainties and kept the originals safe at the Manuscript bank.
Raguvamsa Sathamirtham a well-known Sanskrit work was translated into Tamil. The poets composed ‘Parasasegaran Ula’ in celebrating his victories in Kotte and Gampola, South Lanka. At Kalviyankadu, Jaffna a herbal garden called Maruthuvamamalai was crafted during his rule. Treatment centers were set up by him for the people to benefit from free treatment of their illnesses.
Nallurnagar (the city of Nallur) was crafted beautifully. There was the Elephant troops, horse-riding troops, work houses, tree-gardens, flower-gardens, elephant-bathing lake (Anaikkulam) were erected. Addionally many-windowed palaces and merchant palaces were put up. Craftmen, weavers, wood workers, iron-workers, artists, goldsmiths, gem-merchants, poets and litterateurs, musicians and others were systematically settled in an organized manner in well crafted settlements.
Also for land-owners gentry with impressive balconies were constructed. Streets set apart for medical men, astrologers and farming folks. The wonderment at this well-crafted city received admiration – Indranagar (city of Lord Indra) Kuberannagar (City of Kuberan Lord of wealth) the beauty amazed those who viewed it. In the year 1519AC, the Portuguese engaged in war and the prince king Kathirkamasegaran along with his troops drove them out.
In Parvathipuram (Pathaviya) there is a stone head in Vannathi Palam (Bridge). It consited that “Pararajasekaran King of Singai constructed this dam by cranite stone and built this tank. Ceylon was ruled by three Tamil Kings of the three Tamil Kingdoms when Europeans came to Ceylon. British handed over the rule to Sinhala Leaders when they left Ceylon is the cause for the existing destruction of Ceylon (P.M.Selvadurai). Actually two sub-kingdoms Kandy and Kotte were under the Singai Empire.
Sangili was born to King Pararajasegarams tie with his pleasure for Atchuvely Manguthummal. Sangili was a character with evil thoughts. His unscrupulous plan to capture the throne ended the lives of the royal princes Pandaram and Singavahu. When prince Kathirkamasegaran left to Vanni to put down trouble there, Sangili killed troops of a large number (1500) loyal to his father Pararajasegaran and incarcerated him. In the year 1520AC, without crown or scepter Sangili ascended the throne through his greed for power. On his return Prince Kathirkamasegaran readied for war with Sangili. Fearing for Kathirkamasegaran life, his father advised him not to war with Sangili but retreat to Chulipuram for the time-being, Chulipuram was earlier the ruling centre.
The court didn’t Sangili as their king (ruler), being not of the royalty. They questioned why such trechery when the prince (Kathirkamsegaram) is there? Without crown or scepter, Sangili is on the throne through intrigue and he is ruling! The serving classes of the Palace were divided and a section supported Sangili. The people raised their voices in favour of Emperor Pararajasegaran. This made Sangili suffer indignity. The Brahmin minister who was under Pararajasegeran joined hands with Sangili.
Pararajasegaran escaped from jail and reached Chulipuram and handed over the crown and scepter to his son of royal lineage Kathirkamsegaran and lived with him. Sangilis Brahmin minister advised him that until his father is alive, the people won’t pay respect to him this made Sangili to announce publicly that a thousand gold coins will be awarded for the head of his father Pararajasegaran.
After this announcement, the Brahmin minister camafluoged himself and went in search of Pararajasegaran. He was drinking water from a well, cut his head and presented it to the Sangili. Filled with emotion at seeing his father’s head, he cut off the Brahmin’s head. Pararajasegaran was killed in the year 1521 AC, during Portuguese reign to mask the real facts, that the king was killed in 1621 AC, then he would be 181 years old.
Sangiliyan was brave but also wicked. There is a Tamil saying which goes like this ‘Worse than those who cruder is a king who commits felony’ .‘Rasamadappalli’ is the name given to those who prepare food and related items to royalty. As some of these people were loyal to the dead king, he dismissed them from service and engaged other, giving them the title ‘Kumaramadappalli’ that is being the son, after his name owing to this enmity arose between ‘Rasamadapplli’ and ‘Kumaramadappalli’. During the year 1531 AC, Sangilian way raid the Portuguese and plundered from them the items of fragrance, guns and gunpowder, but the Portuguese did not retaliate with war. Commenting Reverent Saveriyar stated that the Portuguese were weak to engage in combat with Sangili. Sangili who did not fear to kill never honored anyone with the title of ‘Muthali’. It was not a custom to honour them that title. Those who belong to the royal lineage are not called ‘muthali’. Those who are born out of royal wedlock can only become a ruler king or be considered to be of royal lineage.
The son born a result from Pararasasegaram and Velala Valliammai is not a royal tie, as such Paraniruba Singamuthali is a Vellala title. This honoring is a Vellala title. This hounouring with ‘muthali’ title cannot be attributed to Sangili. Paranirubasinga Muthali as he was called in keeping with his vellala lineage, he was not of the royalty. Sangili did not honour madappali the title of ‘muthali’ which belonged to the Verls. ‘Rasamadappalli’ was removed and appointed new were named ‘Kumaramadappalli’ by Sangili in an arbitrary manner.
During 1544 AC, Reverent Francis Xavier, a catholic priest spread Christianity amongst the people of Mannar. Unless you accept the bible the Portuguese forces would oppress you was told to the people driving fear into them and effected conversion to Catholicism. The ruler Sangili warned the people not to convert and also made them understand that ‘today you will become Catholics’ ‘tomorrow you will be under the Portuguese’; the objective of the Portuguese is to take over the Perl-fishing along the Mannar Coast Sangili understood.
In December 1544 AC, Sangili travelled to Mannar and effected his justice by killing the person who at daggers point converted six hundred persons and also killed them by attacking them with his sword as people who committed treachery to the land. Neither the King of Portuguese nor the Portuguel forces were unable to recover form the shocking episode, while the ruler of Kotte acted in a pacifying manner to the Portuguel, Sangili heading a strong rulership drove away the Portuguese. The Portuguese harassed those who refused to be converted by bringing forward other reasons. They ill-treated the people and resorted to creating social disturbances, also they killed these people cruelly and those who suffered death at their hands were all Tamils.
In the year 1547 AC, the ruler of Sitawake, Tunnapandaram (Mayadunne) requested his forces for help and Sangili responded. Trincomalle was under the direct rule of Singainagar together with certain sub-rulers. King Pararajasekaran had ruled Trincomalee and when is 1551 AC, the sub-ruler of Trincomalee died, Sangili proclaimed that he was justly brought it under his direct rulership. The sub-ruler of Trincomalee who had died was Vannirasan; his son sought the help of the Portuguese to regain the rulership of Trincomalee. The Portuguese planned and schemed to make him the ruler of Jaffna and Trincomalee. Knowing this Sangili made peace with Vannirasan son and returned Trincomalee’s rulership to him. Paranirubusingan (Muthali) had also died. Because of his death, the Portuguese planned to bring Jaffna under the rulership of Vannirasan son this is expressed by Father Gnanapragasar.
In the year 1560 AC, Jaffna came under Portuguese incursion and attack. The attacked from Mannar through Nedunthivu, from Gova through Kovalaturai (Sambukovalam), and penetrated from Colombo through Pannaiturai. Three regiments of the Portuguese moved towards Nallur come across the border-stone of Singainagar, it is said Singainagar is along the route from Kovalaturai By Father Quvairas. Father Gnanapiragarar until 1478 AC, Singainar (Sanganai) was the centre of rulership of the Singai Emperors.
The three regiments of the Portuguese moved toward Nallur simultaneously and attacked the Fort. Sangili left Nallur knowing that he was unable to meet the strong tri-fold forces. The attacking forces thinking that Sangili had abandoned the fort and the rulership, spread out into the countryside and attacked the people with ferocity. Loyal to the king and kingdom the Singai people arming themselves joined Sangili and made a surprise attack on the enemy and recaptured Nallur. The Tamils joined in the uprising all over, armed and wherever they confronted the Portuguese and those who supported met their death in a gory attack. Those who had engaged in barter-trade with the Portuguese too were killed. The Catholic priest who preached the faith and those who fallowed him also were killed.
Those who functioned in treachery to the ruler and land were sentenced to death. Those who acted treacherously to the motherland are a king to those who are treacherous to their mother stated Sangili and sentenced them to death. Sangili’s elder son Paranirubasingan and his troops numbering 1500 were captured by the Portuguese. Paranirubasingan converted to Christianity and joined the Portuguese.
The Portuguese force who survived the fierce attack; taking along their injure ran for their lives and embarked and went to Goa by ship. In the year 1571 AC, Paranirubasingan, Sangili’s captured son died. Father Ganapragasar is of the opinion that he was made out to be king Pararajasekaran’s son Paranirubasinga (Muthali). Paranirubasinga’s family too converted to Christianity.
During the battle of 1560 AC, Sangili lost a large number of his troops. Also he was sick. Knowing this the Portuguese forces captured Mannar. Sangili was heart-broken because his son Paranirubasingan has been captured by the Portuguese. This made him unable to battle still in the year 1561 AC, massing a large force he fought a big war to re-capture Mannar. Sangili was not successful, a majority of his forces too suffer death and Sangili was wounded. The Portuguese readied to attack Nallur the Rajadani (Centre of rulership). Sangili’s sons Periapillai and Kasinainar endeavoured to capture the rulership of Nallur. Awaiting an opportune time that sons of Kathirkamasegeran Rasa maharasa Rasasekaram and younger brother Pandaram attacked Nallur and captured the Palace, Periyapillai and Kasinainar joined the Portuguese. The Portuguese endeavoured to make Periyapillai the king but did not succeed. In 1565 AC, Sangili fell sick and died.
Sangili was born out of the tie of his father Pararasasegara Chakravarti and his mother out of fortress; thus he was not entitled to rule; only those born out of royal wedlock become entitled to the throne. Without gem-studded crown and sceptre, Sangili ascended the throne and ruled. But because of his being not entitled to the throne be was not crowned. Sangili was not called King . Instead he was called ruler Sangiliyan.
Neither the court nor the people cared for Sangili nor his off spring to ascend the throne of Nallur. Through intrigue Sangili captured power but he was not given the title of King, Kasinainar and Kunjinainar are names (nainar) referring to Vellalas.
Emperor Rasamaharasa Rasasekaram
The Portuguese who captured Sangili’s son Paranirubasingan took him in to their company, but the people had no regard for him. The Portuguese planned to make him the ruler. Sangili’s second son Periyapillai opposed this more, The palace servers of Sangili’s period gave their support to Periyapillai because of his mother and her line. Knowing this the Portuguese tried to make use of Periyapillai. There fore Sangili’s offspring tried to utilise this support and the support of the Portuguese to claim the throne. Sangili’s sons, Paranirubasingan, Periyapillai, Gunjinainar and Kasinainar joined hands with Portuguese, converting to Christianity and made their treacherours effort to give over the mother land to the alien invaders. The Portuguese to responded by conferring on them position of Significance. The people of land did not like Sangili descending the throne nor did they like his descendants aspiring to it.
Taking all these into account the true lineage descendant Rasasekaram triumphed over them and in the year 1561 AC, was crowned. As such Pararasasekara Chakravartis crown came by lineage to Rasasekeram. The people of the land desired the royalty by lineage to rule. All who were appointed by Sangili were removed and the Singai people were employed in the royal houses-hold. Kumaramadappalli (The Palaces food-making and serving segment) appointed by Sangili was replaced by Rasamadappali (The royal servers). Rasasekaram displayed royal instincts and followed royal traditions. In the year 1570 AC, he fought a big battle and killed a number of Portuguese troops to capture Mannar.
He announced the Singainadu won’t be humbled, the mother land will be protected by the Tamil warriors (Maravar). At the same time the Portuguese directed their battle to Nallur from Mannar. Portuguese forces arrived towards Nallur from Mannar, Goa and Colombo. Sangili Paranirubasingn fought along with them. The ruler Rasasekaram suffered injury in this battle and entered the Warrior’s heaven . The Portuguese cut off Rasasekarams head and kept it for public view. As Rasasekaram’s (ruler) son was only a young boy, his brother Pandaram ruled without crown until the boy came of age.
Prince Kathirkamsegarans, second son Puvirasa Pandaram of royal lineage in 1571 AC; was declared as ruler of Nallur. The efforts of Periyapillai and Kunjinainar to ascend the throne was defeated. These two were considered traitors to the kingdom. These two make efforts to rows an internal battle in the land and make way for the Portuguese. In the year 1582 AC, the king with the help of the Nayakka rulers of India endeavoured to re-capture Mannar. He was unable to achieve his goal again in the year 1590, he massed a big force and engaged in trying capture island of Mannar. The warring two sides lost a number of soldiers. Mannar could not be captured. The Kandyan Tamil rulers, although paying tribute to Singai Arya Chakravarti good relationship existed. With the coming of the alien Portuguese changes occurred and the Kotte sub-rulers established close relationship with the Portuguese, the Kandyan sub-rulers endeavored to strengthen them selves. Konappu Bandaram got his younger brother Senarathan (later ruler) married in 1590AC to nallur's ruler Puvirasapandaram’s daughter.
In the August month of 1591 he invited mercenaries from India to fight again for Mannar. The Portuguese killed the Indian mercenaries at sea. Because the sought help did not come, the king suffered great loss. In the year1591, October, with the blessings of Catholic priests, for the sake of the new converts to Catholicism, and for Kunchinainar and Periyapillai, Sangili’s sons, the Portuguese approached Nallur to battle. A blood bath war occured. The ruler who sustained wounds in this fierce battle died after some days. Still the Portuguese failed to capture the land.
Emperor Ethirmanna Pararasasekaran
The son of Rasasekaram Ethimannesingan took up the royal title Pararasasekaran and ascended the throne in the year 1591 AC. The temple built by his grand father Kathirkamasegaran in 1520 AC, called Paralai Vainayagar Kovil, owing to its dilapidated state was demolished and rebuilt by him. The ceremonies associated with the temple erection and its Holy Well and the Peak ceremony called Kudamulukku were completed. The continual war of a hundred years with the Portuguese had claimed a number of warriors although ending in victory. Many subjects over whom the king of Nallur reigned to had died in these never-ending battles. Although weakened by the loss of troops. Ethirmannasingan ruled well. In order to prevent the loss of troops and wars, Ethirmannasingan, permitted the Portuguese to engage in trade and spread their religious doctrine. The subjects did not desire this more, especially conversion. The catholic priests who flocked to convert were killed by the people. The Catholic Churches were torched. These who converted the new religion, the ruler consider could not be loyal to the land. Owing to his decision, the permeation of the new religion weakened the loyalty of subjects who were converted thought Ethirmannasingan. This would result in the loss of sovereignty of the Nallur kingdom, he pondered upon this prospect.
PRINCE ETHIRMANNA SINGAN 1571 SINGAI EMPIRE
SCULPTURED SLAB AT THE MAHA SAMAN DEVALE, RATNAPURA
In order to prevent this occurrence he established friendship with the king of Kandy, Senaratthan, who too was against the common enemy, the Portuguese. The Portuguese feared this friendship which was bonded further by the marriage of Senarathans son’s, Kumarasinghan and Vijayapalan to the Nallur ruler’s two daughters. The Portuguese fearing this alliance were afraid to mount a battle on Nallur. The elder daughter of Ethirmannan was given in marriage to Singai ruler Kulasegaran. Kulasegaran being a physician was able to cure with one dose of medicine the cure-resisting disease of the Queen of Kandy. For this quick cure the king gifted Kulasekaran with gold, the nine fold gems and a gem studder palanquin.
The spreading of Catholicism was not desired by the ruler. Ethirmannasingan worked relentlessly against conversion. Those who were converted joined the Portuguese. When Ethirmannasingan died he left behind his eleven-year old son and named him as a claimant to his throne. This boy was crowned but as he was too young his maternal uncle acted as regent until he came of age.
In the year 1619 AC, with the assistance of the uncle Arasakesari, the eleven year old Rasasingan was crowned. Kasinainar and Sangili (2) signed a pact with the Portuguese troops Sangili (2) killed the regent Arasakesari and boy-king Rasasingan. After which the titular head was the son-in-law of Ethirmannasingan Duke Kulasekaran. He too the crown and sceptre and escaped. Like Sangili (1) who was not of the complete royal line, Sangili (2) being not the rightful heir, captured the fort and was appointed Governor. The traditional and rightful lineage cannot be altered and the claimant to rule was a usurper. The Portuguese have remarked in their writings that the rightful heir abandoned his claim to the throne. This was proved false. Kulasekaran the rightful heir marred troops and with the support of the people rule in opposition to Sangili (2) dropped up by the Portuguese. Sangili (2) was not the ruler but functioned as a poppet-head under the Portuguese. Owing to this feature that history was recorded wrongs by some that the Portuguese rule began in the year 1619 AC.
Sangili(I)’s great grandson Sangili (II) and his followers in the year 1619 enter into a pact with the Portuguese. The pact contain clauses that they will accept the king of Portugal as sovreign, pay tribute, build a fort and for the Portuguese to entere into trading, to engage in preaching Christianity, and to build their Churches. The Portuguese forces along with Sangili (II) and in the year 1619 AC, killed the ruler Rasasingan and Sangili (II) was able to capture the rulership, functioning under the Portuguese as their governor. The court and the palace-workers were adverse to Sangili (II) who worked vigorously to the rightful ruler. The servers in Sangili’s palace, Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan made friendship with Catholic priest and functioned in support of the Portuguese Sangili acting not in accordance with the pact deceived the Portuguese.
Sangili (II) subjected the people to terrible hardships. Because he did not observe the pact signed with them, the Portuguese in 1620 AC started a battle with Sangili (II). He was arrested, taken to India and underwent beheading there. Sangili (II) spouse and children surrendered to the Portuguese and underwent religion conversion. Sangili (II) didn’t belong to the royal line he was the son of Kasiainar, Paranirabasingan who was treacherous to Sangili (II) by working against him too did not belong to royal lineage, Rasamodappalli and Kumaramadappali were his relatives confirmed.
After the arrest of Sangili (II) the Portuguese commence there atrocities. They frightened the people and converted them they wanted the subjects to become Christians and those who refused were tortured. Their belongings were taken away by force. Those who converted to Christianity were given official positions; this is recorded by Muthuthambipillai. What gives victory to the ruler is not the spear or related weapons but the unbent sceptre.
The Portuguese committed plundering the Nallur Palace and its treasures. The nine-precious stone studded throne, the Portuguese tried to take it away. The throne which was seven steps could not be moved. The broke the seat and took it away, this seat is supposed to be in Portugal. The temples were attacked and broken and the priceless gold jewels were looted. The dwellers in the city of Nallur were attacked and their jewellery and money were taken away by force. Paranirubasingan and Pararasasingan aided and abetted the Portuguese in committing these act of plunder and pillage. The demolishing of Saiva temples can never be justified and Father Gnanapragasar endeavouring to justify the demolishing is a terribly erroneous view.
Rewarding of the traitors
As the Portuguese were able to establish their rule through the help of Paranirubasingan he was given the position of Chief Mudaliyar (heading the stores), his son Pararsasingan was made mudaliyar (Village rule) also monies were given by the Portuguese and received their approbations. These two functioned not only for self-interest and personal advantage but as traitors to the land of the forbears acting like the ‘axe-handle made of wood aids in chopping trees’ (Tamil Saying) .Paranirubasingan was given the title of ‘mudali’ and Pararasasingan was titled ‘madappalli’ and gave him importance. Further when the title of ‘madappalli’ was given along with it 500 villages were not given, therefore they gave the title mudaliyar, madapalli the position held in Sangili (II) rule was also given by the Portuguese. Both had worked in the ‘Madappalli’ positions (Madappalli refers to Kitchen-work in the palace and associated work). Only one of them was titled ‘Mudali’ for his higher lineage which has created confusion. The Paranirubasingan born in 1470 AC to Vellala Valliammai is not the ‘Madappalli’ Parunirubasingan whose treachery to the land helped the Portuguese intent on invading. ‘Kakkai’ is the man who was trencherours and ally to the Portuguese. He is said to have been given the position of heading the spice store-house. Valliammai’s son Paranirubasingan live for 160 years and committed treachery is erroneous.
The king of Portugal ruled from the capital Lisbon. His ministers too functioned at Lisbon. Neither the commander of the forces nor the Portuguese governor who were in this land did not confer any titles. At that time the highest – position given was the head of the spice storage house who was given to Mudali it is stated. Paranirubasinga mudali died 100 years ago and mudali could not have been given a non-existent position.
The poet has been eulogistic about the descendants of Pararasasingan. Their support to the aliens, the elevated positions assigned to them. The titles confirmed and gift made to them are given in detail. To the alien Portuguese ‘Madappalli’ Paranirubasingan gave support to rule over the land and enslave the Tamil population. If Sangili were alive those who were treacheries to the land and helped the aliens would have been condemned as traitors and punished. In connection with the period of Paranirubasingan is factually baseless ( yarlpana sarithiram page 100) Kakkai is called Kakkai Vanniyan erroneously. Also Sangili and Paranirubasingan had died years ago are cited as having lived in 1620 AC, creating an amusing history what pulavar Mailvagannam has written in connection with the rulers of the Portuguese period create confusion and lot of doubt not history ( y.v.k). For fame and fall karma alone is the cause.